Publications and Abstract of Research

Biology Department (2017-2018)

List of 2017-2018 Publications and Abstract of Research from Biology Department

School of Biological Science

S/NAuthor's Name & year of publicationTitle of workAbstractJournal NameJournal Vol./Number
68Olusola O. Ibeh and Solomon N. Umeham (2018) Genotoxicity assessment of three industrial effluents using the Allium cepa Bioassay The Allium cepaassay was employed, in conjunction with physico-chemical analysis, to investigate the potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three industrial effluents (soap, beverage and paint) from the southeast of Nigeria. For in situ monitoring of cytotoxicity level, inhibition of mitotic division was investigated and for genotoxicity evaluation, chromosomal aberration assay was carried out. The results showed certain sample-constituents of the wastewaters (e.g. pH, turbidity) to be at concentrations beyond the maximum permissible limits required by international regulatory authorities. On the basis of the 72h effective concentration (72h EC50), the paint effluent was the most toxic while the beverage effluent was the least toxic. The mean root lengths of A. cepa exposed to different concentrations of the industrial effluents, when compared to the control, were shown by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to be significantly (p<0.05) concentration dependent. The three industrial effluents were observed to induce chromosomal aberrations, laggards and sticky chromosomes being the most frequently seen. The findings show that a combination of physico-chemical analysis and genotoxicity assay is effective in assessing industrial effluents for the environmental monitoring of pollutants. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 12(3), pp. 115-122
69 Ibeh O.O., UdochiS.C. and Okafor I.O (2017) ASSESSMENT OF THE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE LEACHATE Although municipal solid waste landfills are an indispensable part of modern-day society, the presence of heavy metals in leachates from such pose a contamination threat to ground water and surface water, especially if the landfill is unlined. The assessment of physicochemical characteristic and heavy metals in an unlined landfill at Nekede, Nigeria were carried out. Leachate samples were collected from actual streams from different locations in the landfill and analyzed using standard analytical procedures. The results show that certain heavy metals contained in the leachate were above permissible limits of drinking water and waste water discharge standards set by international regulatory bodies. Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Hg, As, Ni and Pbwere in concentration ranges of 0.16-0.93, 1.12-7.34, 0.02-0.05, 0.15-1.62, 0.16-0.27, 0.15-0.20, 0.28-0.62 and 0.12-0.36mg/100g respectively, which are several multiples of the acceptable standards. In the light of the potential of this leachate to contaminate the sourrounding surface and ground water sources in the vicinity of the landfill, appropriate control measures should be taken by the concerned authorities to rehabilitate the landfill and also to continuously monitor the groundwater sources aroud the area in order to contain any contamination that might occur ABSU Journal of Environment, Science and Technology, Vol. 5:000-000,
70IbehO.O., Udochi S.C. and OkaforI.O HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF SOIL DUE TO LEACHATE MIGRATION FROM A LANDFILL AT NEKEDE, IMO STATE In improperly managed landfills, leachate from the dumpsite can contaminate the soil, via run off, and have hazardous effects on plants and animals that depend on these primary producers in the ecosystem. Of all the hazardous constituents of landfill leachate, heavy metals are the most toxic and environmentally dangerous pollutants in and they can contaminate soil and water due to their leach ability and mobility. The physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentration of soil samples collected around the municipal solid waste (MSW) unlined landfill, Nekede, were investigated to to evaluate the heavy metal contamination due to leachate migration. The soil samples were observed to be alkaline with a pH range of 7.49-7.90. The ranges of extractable metals in the samples for Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Ni were 2.867-5.430, 0.460-0.876, 0.300-1.460, 0.490-1.331, 3.870-9.361, 0.814-2.116 and 4.422-6.840 mg kg-1 respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the collected soil sample was in the following order: Fe>Zn>Pb>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cd. All the heavy metals investigated were present in concentrations beyond acceptable limits in most cases, some being in multiples of such. The presence of heavy metals in the soil samples indicates that there is an appreciable contamination of the soil consequent of leachate migration from the landfill. The attendant potential risks of such contamination to plants and other living organisms, including man, in the vicinity of the landfill were discussed. ABSU Journal of Environment, Science and Technology , Vol. 5:000-000,
71Chukwudi Nwaogu, Dike H. Ogbuagu, Selegha Abrakasa, Modupeola A.Olawoyin & Vilém Pavlů July, 2017. Assessment of the impacts of municipal solid waste dumps on soils and plants The study aimed at evaluating the impacts of open municipalsolid wastes dumps on soil and vegetation near the main roadslinking major cities in Nigeria. We hypothesised that the metalsfrom the wastes exerted substantial impacts at the dump siteswhich affect the soil and plants. Data were analysed from fivedump sites and five control sites. The result revealed that theeffects of the heavy metals (HM) were significant and higher atthe dump sites where their concentrations were far above theEU, and Canadian environmental quality permissible limits foragricultural soils and vegetation. In contrast with dump sites, asignificant relationship (R2 = 0.70; p < .001) was found betweenthe number of plant species and area at control sites. Shrubsand herbs were more tolerance with higher contents of HMcompared with grasses. Plants leaves showed more HMcontents compared to the shoots or roots. The soil and plantscontents of the HM were relatively in the order of Zn > Cr > Pbat both dump sites and control sites. Further study on theeffects of more HM on soil and plant is recommended in thearea. Recycling and bio-phytoremediation processes should alsobe introduced. Journal: Chemistry and Ecology, Vol. 33, No. 7, 589–606.
72C. O. Ujowundu, D. M. Koloseke, N. O. Uba, J. J. Achilike, D. H. Ogbuagu and E. A. Ubuoh 2017 Ecotoxicological Impact of Sub-lethalConcentrations of Glyphosate–basedHerbicide on Juvenile Clarias gariepinus The presence of pesticides in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems has become an importantissue globally. This study determined the possibility of bioaccumulation of glyphosate, the activecompound of Roundup pesticides in muscle tissues of juvenile Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), and theeffects of exposure on some oxidative stress parameters. Forty fishes were grouped and exposedto graded (sub-lethal) concentration of Roundup pesticides for two weeks. Pesticides wereextracted from the muscle tissues by cold extraction and detection and determination wereperformed using Gas chromatography- Electron captured detector (GC-ECD). Oxidative stressparameters such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde were analyzed. Fish tissue glyphosate concentration increased significantly(p<0.05) as dosage increased and residues of organochlorine pesticides such as p-p1DDT,p-p1DDE, HCB, α-HCH, γ-HCH, t-nonachlor and γ-chlordane were detected at concentration farbelow the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value. The biochemical studies showed significant increase (p<0.05) in activity of oxidative stress enzymes and lipid peroxidation productof fish groups exposed to Roundup pesticides in a dose dependent pattern. This study reveals thatthe use of Roundup pesticides in ways that could expose aquatic environment to its residues couldresult to adverse biochemical changes. Therefore, the use of this pesticide should be properlyregulated and monitored to limit chronic exposure of fish consumers. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 22(11): 1-14
73Ujowundu, C.O., Igwe, C.U., Alisi, C.S., Nwaogu, L.A., Ogbuagu, D. H. and Onwuliri, V.A. 2017 Detoxification potentials of an alcoholic bitter on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in wistar albino rats The increased demand for herbal remedies and natural quest for alcohol consumption has positionedalcoholic herbal preparations (bitters) as ideal drink. Bitters are acclaimed to have blood detoxifyingand liver cleansing potentials. This study investigated the acclaimed detoxifying potentials of analcoholic bitter (AB) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity. Twenty five male Wistar albino ratswere grouped and treated, thus: group I served as normal control, groups II, IV and V were given singledose of 1.2 ml CCl4/kg body weight (bwt). Groups IV and V were administered 1.4 and 2.8 ml AB/kg bwt, respectively, while group III animals were administered 1.4 ml AB/kg bwt. Results obtained showedsignificant (p<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation and in activities of liver function enzymes, reductionsin glutathione concentration and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase in groupsadministered AB and CCl4 only as well as in groups treated with AB after CCl4 exposure. Theseobservations indicate manifestation of oxidative stress induced by excessive consumption of highpercentage alcoholic content of the bitter. Similarly, the result trends of other antioxidant parametersstudied indicated significant oxidative damage and thus the inability of the alcoholic bitter to amelioratexenobiotics induced damage. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 11(31), pp. 368-376, 22
74Dike H. Ogbuagu, Ikenna N. Nwachukwu, Anthony C. Nwazuluahu, Nzoputa P. Kalakiya 2017 Haematotoxicological and hepatotoxic inductions of a geophagic substance (Calabash chalk) on the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) This study investigated probable effects of a geophagic material - Calabash chalk on the haematology and liver enzyme activities of the mammalian model- Rattus norvegicus. Twenty four albino rats were acclimatised and exposed to 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 % (w/w) toxicant-feed mixture. After 2 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their blood as well as liver enzyme function activities were assessed. The higher toxicant concentrations induced lower body weights in the mammals [F(4618.5)>Fcrit(4.30)] at p<0.05. Mean maximum white blood cell (15.0±8.84x103/μl), red blood cell (6.67±0.03x106/μl) and haemoglobin counts (13.4±0.49g/dl) were recorded in the 12.5% toxicant concentration and least counts (5.2±1.05x103/μl, 6.08±0.57x106/μl & 11.5±1.23g/dl respectively) were recorded in the 50% toxicant concentration. Highest (85.1±2.63%) and least (75.7±2.13%) mean lymphocyte counts were recorded in the control and 50.0% toxicant concentrations respectively. In the 25.0% toxicant concentration, the highest monocyte count was 10.5±1.75% and the least count was 7.0±0.52% in the control. Highest granulocyte count of 14.2±3.93 was made in the 12.5% toxicant concentration. Highest mean Alkaline phosphatase activity (240.67±48.8U/L) was recorded in the 25.0% toxicant concentration, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (278.00±19.66U/L) in the 25.0% concentration, Alanine aminotransferase (104.67±23.92U/L) in the 50.0% toxicant concentrations, and total (0.31±0.15mg/dL) and conjugated bilirubins (0.12±0.03mg/dL) both in the 12.5% toxicant concentration. The toxicant concentrations induced significant increases in serum AST activity (Sig. F=0.02; p<0.05). Calabash chalk induced slight increases in granulocytes and liver enzyme activities, indicating exposure to systemic distress in the mammal. Journal of Environmental Toxicology and Public Health Volume 2 | Pages 14-26 14. 2: 14-26
75Ogbuagu Dike Henry, Ogoke Fidelis Chukwuma,Mbuka-Nwosu Iheoma Ezichi 2018 Nutrient Fluxes in Polluted Sediments of theBonny Estuary in Nigeria: An Assessment of theRole of Oxygen The role played by oxygen in the degradation of nutrients (NO3-, PO43- and SO42-) in sediments of the Bonny Estuary, which isrepository to pollutants arising from various industrial and shipment activities in its catchment was investigated. Sedimentsamples were monitored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for nutrient fluxes. Harvests and spectrophotometric analyseswere made on Days 0, 14, 28 and 42. NO3- ion concentrations degraded from 10.21 to 2.72ppm in aerobic and 10.21 to3.08ppm in anaerobic condition; PO43- ions degraded from 122.6 to 92.5ppm in aerobic, and 122.6 to 102.2ppm in anaerobic conditions; while SO42- ions degraded from 128.4 to 108.2ppm in aerobic, and 128.4 to 118.2ppm in anaerobic conditions. Thedegradations of PO43- and SO42- ions, as well as changes in pH differed significantly over the 42 days experimental period inboth aerobic (Sig. F=0.000 each) and anaerobic conditions (Sig. F=0.003, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively) at p<0.05. There werealso significant differences between degradations in aerobic and anaerobic conditions at the 95% confidence limit. Degradationwas steady and the nutrients fluxes were oxygen- and time-dependent. American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 13-19
76D. H. Ogbuagu; I. N. Nwachukwu; O. J. Ejike 2018 Application of Biofilms in removal of Heavy metals from Wastewater under static condition The aim of the research was to apply biofilms as a model in ecotoxicology to remove selected heavymetals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb) from the wastewater under a static conditions. Biofilms were grown inthree graded concentrations of the metal leachates (0.625, 0.417 and 0.250%), harvested after 1, 2 and 3 weeks and analyzed for heavy metals. Mean accumulations peaked on Day 21, and of Cd ranged from0.000 to 0.040 (mean = 0.00837 ± 0.002), Cu from 0.000 to 0.212 (meam = 0.03929 ± 0.012), Cr from0.000 to 0.500 (mean = 0.05821 ± 0.021), Zn from 0.000 to 1.456 (mean = 0.31833 ± 0.109) and Pb from0.000 to 0.099 (mean = 0.02129 ± 0.006) mg/g in resultant biofilm formations. Accumulation of themetals increased significantly with time [F(205.59) > Fcrit(3.95)] at the 95% confidence interval. Thoseof Pb was significantly higher in the 0.625% leachate mixture than control (Sig F = 0.034) at p< 0.05,even as those of Cd and Cu were slightly higher in the concentrations than control. Biofilm model removedsmall amounts of metals from waste water stream in static condition. Journal: Biotechnologia Acta, V. 11, No. 3,
77Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Chijioke-Okere Maureen, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Ukaoma Adanna A and Onwumere Fidelis.2018 MINERALS AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANGIFERA INDICA SEED KERNEL OBTAINED FROM EASTERN NIGERIA The analysis on the seed kernel of Mangifera indica was carried out in the laboratory with the view of determining its phytochemical constituents as well as its mineral constituent. The sample was screened for its phytochemicals and the minerals determination was performed by the ashing method with the aid of a muffle furnace and bulk scientific atomic absoption spectrometer (AAS). Results obtained revealed that the seed kernel is rich in phytonutrients as it contains alkaloids, tannins, phenols, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Similarly, the mineral composition revealed that the seed kernel contained essential minerals such as; Potassium, 0.013mg/g, Sodium 0.788mg/g, Magnesium 0.005mg/g, Calcium 0.009mg/g, Manganese 0.039mg/g, Iron 0.101mg/g, Zinc 0.058mg/g, Copper 0.0016mg/g, Cobalt 0.010mg/g and Chromium 0.008mg/g. These results not only highlighted the usefulness of this sample but gives credence to fact that the Mangifera indica seed kernel could act as a veritable food supplements for both domesticated animals and man. . African Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Volume 1, Issue 2, (pp. 1-11) 1
78Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Oze Rita N, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Amarachi Nkwoada and Ukaoma Adanma A.2018 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC/MS ANALYSIS OF THE RHIZOME OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE PLANT GROWN IN EASTERN PART OF NIGERIA Phytochemical and GC-MS analysis of zingiber offinale was carried out in the laboratory and with the aid of SHIMAZU Japan Gas Chromatography 5890-11 with a fused GC column OV 101 coated with polymethyl silicon (0.25 mm x 50 m). The result obtained confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins amd phenols in the plant. Twelve peaks were obtained from the he spectra of the GC-MS. peak 1 corresponds to Furan-3-carboxaldehyde with m/z 128 and molecular formulae C6H8O2, peak 2 was identified as Benzene -1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-4hexenyl)-4-methyl m/z 202 with molecular formulae C15H22. Peak 3 as ,1-,3-cyclohexadiene-5- (,5 diethyl-4-hexenyl -2-methyl (zingiberene) m/z 204 with molecular formulae C15H24, peak 4 as Alpha farnesene m/z 204 with molecular formulae C15H24. Peaks 5,6,7,8,9,10,1,12 occurred at m/z; 220,204, 194,242,,256,296,282, 296 corresponding to butylated hydrotoulene, C15H24,,cyclohexene-3-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl-6- methelene C15H24, 2-butanone-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl C11H14O3, methyl tetra decanoate C15H32O2, n-hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester C09H26O2, Octadec-9-enoic acid, C18H34O2, Gingerol C17H28O4 and Ricinoeic acid C18H24O2 respectively African Journal of Biology and Medical Research Volume 1, Issue 1, 2018 (pp. 43-54)
79Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Ukaoma Adanna A, Oze Rita .N 2018 Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Gc/Ms Analysis of the Root of Stachytarpheta Cayennensis(L .Vahl) Grown in Eastern Nigeria Stachytarpheta cayennensis is a plant full of phytonutrient, it has been applied by many traditional healers to treat host of diseases. Its full constituents have not been fully documented. The phytochemical screening of the root of this plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The antimicrobial analysis on selected human pathogens; Streptococcus specie, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Proteus specie and Pseudomonas specie showed that the extract was only sensitive to Proteus specie having a diameter of inhibition of 4mm at concentration of 240mg/cm3 and minimum inhibition concentration of 120mg/cm3. The spectrum obtained from the GC/MS analysis showed ten peaks at M/z 128 ,220,242,256,252,270,256, 296, 282 and 281 corresponding to molecular formulas of C10H8 for Cyclopentyl cycloheptene, C15H24 for Butylated hydroxyl toluene, C16H320 for Hexadecanoic acid, C16H28O2 for 11-tetradecyl-1-ol acetate, C17H38O2 for Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester,C16H32O2 for n-hexadecanoic acid C19H34O2 for 9- octadecenoic acid methyl ester, C18H34O2 for octadec-9-enoic acid and C18H35NO for 9-octadecenamide respectively. 9-octadecenamide (Oleamide) is useful for the treatment of insomnia. Oleamide accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid during sleep deprivation and thus induces sleep in animals. It may be a potential medicinal treatment for mood and sleep disorders. International Research Journal of Natural Sciences Vol.6, No.2, pp.1-14,
80Ukaoma, Adanma Augustina Obinna Vitus Nwachukwu M. O.and Iwu Irenus Chinonye 2019 EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF EXTRACT OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERAON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATES USING DEHYDROGENASE ASSAY The dehydrogenase Activity (DHA) on clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, candida albicans) isolated from the stock culture of silver Fresh Laboratory Owerri was assayed. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity of the test organisms by ethanol extract of Discorea bulbifera was determined and compared to the standard antibiotics (Ciprofit). The total Dehydrogenase assay was done using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride-formazan (TPF). Response of the bacterial isolates varied with extract concentration as dehydrogenase activity was progressively inhibited in a logistic dose response fashion in the test organisms by the extract and standard drugs. Salmonella typhi responded more remarkedly than E.coli, C. albicans and P. areugenosa. Percentage inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol rxtract against E.coli, P. aeruginosa, s. typhi and C. albicans were 270.80μg/ml, 4476.63μg/ml, 203.26μg/ml, and 1726.47μg/ml respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract gave positive reactions for flavonoids, saponnins, tannins, phytosterol, phenols, cardiac glycerids and cyanogenic glycosides. These phytochemicals may be responsible for the observed inhibition of DHA that translates to the antimicrobial action in these organisms. The experiment incorporated completely in Randomized Design with three replication of each isolates and the control had five plates making a total of 75 plates. International Journal of Current Research in Life Sciences Vol. 08, No. 05, pp.3124-3130, May, 2019
81Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Ukaoma Adanma Augustina, Onwumere Fidelis C Characterization of the Volatile Components of the Leaf of Starchytarpheta cayennesis (Rich) Vahl The GC/MS analysis, phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of the leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennesis was carried out in the laboratory as a part of our probe into the usefulness of the plant in medicinal applications. GC-MS analysis was obtained by the use of SHIMADZU Japan Gas Chromatography 5890-11 with a fused GC column OV 101 coated with polymethyl silicon (0.25 mm x 50 m). Results obtained revealed 13 absorption peaks; Peak 1 occurred at m/z 128 which corresponds to the molecular formula C10H8 and is identified as Azulene.Similarly Peak 2, 3, 4, 5 ,6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, occurred at m/z 220, 200,242, 240, 268, 270, 256 ,296 ,296, 282, 281, 252 respectively corresponding to molecular formulas; C15H24O, C12H24O2, C15H30O2, C17H36, C19H40, C17H34O2, C16H32O2, C19H36O2, C20H40O C18H34O2, and C18H35NO. They were identified as Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Dodecanoic acid, Methyl tetradecanoate, Heptadecane, Nonadecane, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester, Phytol, Octadec-9-enoic acid, 9-octadecenamide, and 11-tetradecyl-1-ol acetate respectively. At concentrations of 100mg/cm3 the extract showed inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, 8mm, Klesiella spp 9mm, Proteus mirabilis 5mm and Pseudomonas aureginosa 5mm. The minimum inhibition concentrations are 25mm/cm3 for Staphylococcus aureus, 12.5mg/cm3 for Klebsiella spp, 25mg/cm3 for Proteus mirabilis and 12.5mg/cm3 for Pseudomonas aureginosa. These result are very close to those obtained when standard antibiotics levofloxacin and streptomycin. International Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants Vol. 4(1), pp. 041-049, January, 2019.
82Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Ozeh Rita .N, Onu Uchenna Lynda , Ukaoma Adanma. A,Onwumere. Fidelis . Chijioke-Okere Maureen,Apr.2019 CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF VOLATILE COMPONENT OF THE ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA GC-MS characterization of the leaf extract of Momordica charantia was carried out with SHIMAZU Japan Gas Chromatography 5890-11 with a fused GC column OV 101 coated with polymethyl silicon (0.25 mm x 50 m) The initial phytochemical screening of the sample revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, steroids glycosides and tannins .the interpretation of the GC/MS spectrum revealed 13 absorption peaks Peak 1 was identified as Benzene propanoic acid,with molecular weight of 150g and a molecular formula of C9H10O2. Similarly, peak 2-13 were also identified as 1- Octadecyne, 1-Tridecyne, Pentadecanoic acid methyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, n-Hexadecanoic, 11-Octadecanoic acid methyl ester, Phytol ,Oleic acid, 1-fluoro decane, E-9-Tetradecenal, 9-Octadecenal, 1-Pentanol-4-methyl-2-propyl with the following molecular weights; 250g,180g,270g,284g,256g,296g,296g,282g,160g, 210g, 266g,144g and molecular formula of C18H34., C13H24, C17H34O2, C18H36O2. C16H32O2, , C19H36O2 , C20H40O. C18H34O2. C10H21F. C14H26O. C18H34O. C9H20O respectively. The leaf extract showed marked inhibition of some of the selected pathogens,. At concentrations of 200mg/cm3 , the extract inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, 4mm, Trichophyton 2mm, Candida albican 4mm and streptococcus auerus 10mm The minimum inhibition concentrations are 200mg/cm3 for trichophyton spp, 20mg/cm3 for Candida albicans, 100mg/cm3 for staphylococcus aureus and 50mg/cm3 for streptococcus aureus. . International Research Journal of Natural Sciences Vol.7, No.1, pp.14-27,
83Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Oze Rita Nwanneamaka, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Onwumere Fidelis, Ukaoma Adanma Augustina ,June2019 Iwu Irenus Chinonye, Oze Rita Nwanneamaka, Onu Uchenna Lynda, Onwumere Fidelis, Ukaoma Adanma Augustina ,June2019 The characterization of the ethanol leaf extract of Uvaria chamae was carried out with the aim of identifying and determining the chemical compounds present in the extract. Initial phytochemical results showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins. Phenols, steroids and alkaloids. Interpreted spectrum obtained from the GC-MS revealed twelve absorption peaks. Peak 1 was identified as Benzene carboxylic acid with molecular weight of 122g and molecular formula C7H6O2. Similarly, peaks 2-12 were identified as, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, phytol, 6-octadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, tetradecanamide. hexadecanoic acid-2,3-dihydroxpropyl ester, 9-octadecenamide, 9,12-octadecadienoyl chloride and 13-octadecanal with corresponding molecular formulas of C17H34O2, C16H36O2, C19H36O2, C20H40O, C18H34O2, C18H36O2, C14H29NO, C19H38O4, C18H35NO, C18H31ClO and C18H34O respectively. The extract inhibited the growth of some selected human pathogen; Pseudomonas aureginosa by 6mm with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50mg/cm3. Similar results were also obtained for Candida albicans 8mm with MIC 50mg/cm3 and Trichophyton spp 4mm with MIC OF 100mg/cm International Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants Vol. 4(2), pp. 050-057
84Nwachukwu, M.O., Nwachukwu, C.I., Amaechi, A.A., Adjeroh, L.A. and Manuemelula, N.U. (2007) Composition, Distribution and Abundance of Aquatic Insects of Otamiri River in Imo State, Nigeria. Abstract The structure, diversity and seasonal variation in abundance of the Aquatic Insects in Otamiri River were studied during the dry and rainy seasons of 2016. Three grab samples were collected from ObinzeOtamiri, FUTO Otamiri, and IhiagwaOtamiri using a 0.1 m2 Van Veen grab, every month between 9.00 am and 12.00 pm. Artisenal fishing and water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) were observed in the locations. The insect species observed were 12 species in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Odonata. The dry season collection across three sampling locations recorded more species 12 with more insect numbers 54 (54.55 %) than the rainy season collection with 10 species and 45 (45.45 %) insects. Location comparisons showed that there were significant difference in insect fauna using one-way analysis of variance at P=0.05 level. The Ephemeropterans and Dipterans dominated the community, accounting for 62.6 % of the total number of insect recovered. The diversity was highest at the 3rd location (IhiagwaOtamiri) followed by the FUTO Otamiri and ObinzeOtamiri respectively. The insect community in Otamiri River was typically what is found in other freshwater bodies. FUTO JOURNAL SERIES VOLUME-3, ISSUE-2, pp-207 – 212
85Offor C. E., Abara P. N., UgwuOkechukwu P.C., Ekpono1 E. U. , Aloke C and Eneh, C. P.2017 VITAMIN AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF ANNONA MURICATA The vitamin and mineral compositions of Annonamuricataleaves were determined using standard methods. The results revealed the presence of the following vitamins and their concentrations (mg/100g) as retinol (19:15±0.01), thiamine (2.15 ± 0.01), riboflavin (0.24 ±0.00), ascorbic acid (12.64 ± 0.01), calciferol (12.64±, 0.01) and pantothenic acid (1.82 ± 0.00). The mineral concentrations (mg/100g) of Annonamuricataleaves recorded calcium (50.12 ± 0.14), sodium (93. 70 ± 0.00), phosphorus (0.31 ± 0.0 1), magnesium (15.14 ± 0.00), manganese (0.04 ± 0.00) and iron (0.89 ± 0.00). The results showed that the leaves contained relatively high concentrations of retinol, ascorbic acid, calciferol, calcium, and sodium with low concentrations of riboflavin, phosphorus, and iron. JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 2(1):76-82,
86AJA P. M, NWOBASI C. S, ALUM E. U, UDEH S.M.C, EDWIN N, ORINYA O.F,ABARA P.N AND ALOKE C February, 2017, MINERAL AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF NAUCLAE LATIFOLIA ROOT BARK FROM ABAKALIKI EBONYI STATE The study was designed to evaluate the proximate and mineral compositions of Nauclae latifolia.Proximate and mineral compositions were determined by the Standard method of association of analytical chemist (AOAC) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method. The results showed that Nauclaelatifoliaroot bark contain 63.0+0.40% of carbohydrate, 21.96+027 % of moisture, 6.89+0.60% of fibre, 3.77+0.71% of Ash, 2.75+0.48% of protein and 1.62+0.96 % of fat respectively. The results of the mineral composition revealed that phosphorus (4.06+0.35mg/100g) and Zinc (2.87+0.2mg/100g) were the major minerals present in the rootbark of Nauclaelatifolia. This reveals that Nauclaelatifoliaroot bark is a good source of carbohydrates and some other nutrients. IJBPAS 6(2): 375-382
87Offor C. E., Aloke C., Ominyi M.C., Edwin N., UgwuOkechukwu P.C., Nwobasi C. S., Abara P. N and Njoku, J.O.2017 EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINOIDES IN ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of ethanol leaf-extract of Pterocarpussantalinoidesin alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats using a glucometer. Twenty-five Wister albino rats weighing between 100 – 200g were used. The animals were randomly assigned into five different groups of five rats each. The animals in group E served as negative control while those in group D served as the positive control. Groups A, B and C were induced with diabetes and treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of the Pterocarpussantalinoidesleaf-extract respectively. The treatment was done twice daily through oral intubation for twelve days. The glucose levels were determined using glucometer. The results revealed that there were dose dependent and significant (p<0.05) reductions in glucose levels of the rats treated with ethanol leaf-extract of P. santalinoides. The extract also significantly increased the body weights of the animals. This indicated that ethanol leaf-extract of Pterocarpussantalinoidescould be encouraged for management of diabetes mellitus. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCES 2(1) 114-122,
88Abara P. N, Adjero L. A, Ezea O. C, Udebuani A. C., and Nnamani C. J.2018 Genotoxic Potential of The Cypermethrin-Based Pesticide Best® On African Catfish Clariasgariepinus Due to industrialization and agricultural developments, various chemical substances have been released into the environment causing pollution.The accumulation and persistence of these pollutants in the aquaticenvironment constitute a serious threat to biological life and to humanbeings indirectly through the food chain.Two hundred and fifty specimens of Clariasgariepinushaving a mean weight of 0.2 kg and length of 2.50 cm were exposed to synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin in concrete tanks.Acute toxicity testing was carried out to determine the 96 hours lethal concentration. Genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus assay method.Behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, faster opercula activity, and erratic swimming movements were observed following the exposure of the test fish to pesticide during the acute toxicity test.The median lethal concentration value (LC50) of cypermethrin was determined to be 7.23μg/l.There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the frequency of induction of micronuclei as the concentration of the pesticide and period of exposure increased. Formation of micronuclei in the erythrocyte of Clariasgariepinusin this study is an indication of genetic damage. JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 3(1): 1-8,
89Angela C. Udebuani, Ethelbert U, Ezeji, Reuben C. Agu, Ikechukwu N. E. Onwurah and P. N. Abara 2018 Bioavailability and Genotoxicity of glyphosate treated soil on Archachatinamarginata The study of the effects of contaminants of emerging concern such as glyphosate on non-target organisms such as African snail (Archachatinamarginata), with emphasis on the genomic DNA profile, is of great toxicological importance in terms of risk assessment. Until recently, genetic effects were largely inferred from observations of genotype. With the ability to perform DNA sequencing and use of PCR, it has become possible to determine genetic variations occasioned by environmental toxicants through the Science of Genomics. Archachatinamarginata’snature and way of life offers an excellent model animal for the study of the sensitivity of some terrestrial animals to environmental stress induced by chemical pesticides such as glyphosate. In this study, the African giant snail was exposed to soil samples spiked with different concentrations of glyphosate for several weeks and their genomic DNA extracted and subjected to electrophoresis. Amplification of the various DNA bands was carried out using an OMnE-PCR System programming. Our result shows that the AP-PCR genotypic profile with oligonucleotide prima OPA (gaaacgggtg) on DNA of Archachatinamarginataexposed to glyphosate for a period of7 days gave varying number of fragments with different amplification bands, corresponding to different molecularweights or sizes. Similarly, in comparing the length of time of exposure to glyphosate, it was observed that newer DNA fragments with higher intensity and larger molecular sizes were obtained from DNA amplification as against the control that remained the same, except for the unique band (100-400bp) that was observed in all the snails (exposed and unexposed). It can be inferred from this study that since glyphosate caused increased number of DNA fragments and significantly varying molecular sizes in the African giant snail after an exposure, it has the potential mutagenicity that could induce genotoxicity on non-target organisms. Nature and Science 16(7)
90Abara P. N, Adjero L. A, Ezea O. C, Udebuani A. C., and Nnamani C. J. (2018). Genotoxic Potential of The Cypermethrin-Based Pesticide Best® On African Catfish Clarias gariepinus Due to industrialization and agricultural developments, various chemical substances have been released into the environment causing pollution. The accumulation and persistence of these pollutants in the aquatic environment constitute a serious threat to biological life and to human beings mens of Clarias gariepinus having a mean weight of 0.2 kg and length of 2.50 cm were exposed to synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin in concrete tanks.Acute toxicity testing was carried out to determine the 96 hours lethal concentration. Genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus assay method. Behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, faster opercula activity, and erratic swimming movements were observed following the exposure of the test fish to pesticide during the acute toxicity test. The median lethal concentration value (LC50) of cypermethrin was determined to be 7.23µg/l. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the frequency of induction of micronuclei as the concentration of the pesticide and period of exposure increased. Formation of micronuclei in the erythrocyte of Clariasgariepinus in this study is an indication of genetic damage. Journal of Science And Technology 3(1): 1-8,
91U.A. Ibiam, P.N. Abara, A.C. Udebuani and O.C. Ezea (2016). Evaluation of Detergent Residue Concentrated in Food Processed with Detergent Studies were carried out to evaluate the amount of residue concentrated by cassava paste processed from cassava fermented with detergent and carrot washed with detergent. Due to effects of climate related variables on the production and processing of cassava, rural dwellers have adopted the practice of using detergent to help the process of fermentation of cassava. They also believe that soaking carrots in detergent solution makes it easier to clean. Cassava tubers were harvested in an unpolluted farm, carefully peeled, soaked in detergent water and allowed to ferment. The carrots were also soaked in increasing concentrations of detergent solutions for varying periods of time (20, 40 and 60 minutes). The amount of detergent residue accumulated in the processed cassava and carrot was evaluated using the titrimetric method. The dried cassava paste was found to contain between 0.019 to 0.177 mg/g anionic surfactant residue and between 0.058 to 0.177 mg/g cationic surfactant residue. There was a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the amount of residue concentrated in the exposed carrots which was both concentration and time dependent. Care should be taken by rural dwellers and the cassava processors should be educated on the risk associated with the use of chemicals to ferment cassava or process any food stuff. European Journal of Applied Sciences. 8 (5): 297-300

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