Publications and Abstract of Research

Biotechnology Department (2017-2018)

List of 2017-2018 Publications and Abstract of Research from Biotechnology Department

School of Biological Science

S/NAuthor's Name & year of publicationTitle of workAbstractJournal NameJournal Vol./Number
1Nsofor C.A, Qi J, Wu J, Liu M, Gan M, Zhu G and Gao Q (2017). Primary Drug Resistance is a Noticeable Cause of Resistance among Treated Tuberculosis Patients in Shanghai, China. It is generally believed that drug resistance among treated tuberculosis (TB) patients is as a result of acquired drug resistance due to inappropriate treatment. Previous studies have shown that primary drug resistance caused by transmission also plays a role among treated cases. Differentiating the two types of drug resistance will help in developing appropriate strategies for control of drug-resistant tuberculosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that drug resistance among treated TB patients is mainly caused by primary resistance rather than acquired resistance. Defining resistance profiles by molecular drug susceptibility test, we used Unit Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) to genotype and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) to confirm the accordance of the first and last Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from treated pulmonary TB patients in Shanghai from 2009–2015. Among 81 patients with increasing drug resistance, out of 390 patients enrolled, paired isolates from 59.3% (48/81) had different VNTR patterns indicating primary drug resistance. Our results have demonstrated that primary resistance due to exogenous reinfection is the major cause of drug resistance among treated TB patients in Shanghai; thus, strategies aimed at preventing and interrupting transmission are urgently needed to effectively reduce the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Scientific Reports | 7: 7691 | DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-08061-3
2Nsofor C.A and Jude Eletuoh Low Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Owerri, Nigeria. Gonorrhoeae is a purulent infection of the mucous membranes caused by the sexual transmission of the bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, which can result in complications such as tubal factor infertility, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and stillbirth.This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoea in Owerri, Imo State Nigeria; as well as the susceptibility of the recovered isolates to commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of the disease. The survey involved 49 consenting patients seen at St. John’s Medical Laboratory Owerri who were presenting with signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease. Urethra swaps specimens were collected from male patients while high vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected from female patients respectively. The specimens were processed and analyzed for Neisseria gonorrhoea using conventional microbiological techniques. Of the 49 specimens analyzed, only 1 (2.0%) urethra swap from a 38 years old man yielded Neisseria gonorrhoea. Antibiotic susceptibility testing shows that the isolate was sensitive to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone but resistant to penicillin, tetracycline and doxycycline. Despite a low rate of gonorrhoea infection observed in this study, it is important to focus on high-risk populations (reproductive age group) because of the great physical and emotional costs of the disease. There is a need for a policy on routine screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae since the treatment is available but the complications are dangerous to reproductive health. Journal of Bio-Innovation (2017). 6(1): 47-54.
3Nsofor CA and Odom CM (2018). Distribution and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pigs in Ahiara, Imo State Nigeria One hundred (100) nasal swab samples were collected from one hundred pigs in four farms in Ahiara Nigeria. The samples were subjected to standard microbiological and biochemical test (catalase, coagulase, gram staining) to identify Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates were tested for susceptibility against 11 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Out of the hundred pigs sampled, a total of 99 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were recovered representing 99% of total samples. In all, 59.6% (59/99) were identified to be S.aureus. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates to the commonly used drugs shows high resistance to Nalidixic acid (59%), Streptomycin (55%) and Oxacillin (39%). Nineteen (19) isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics, representing 32.3% (19/59). The prevalence of antibiotics resistant S.aureus stands at 67.7% among pigs in this region. This call for urgent intervention because pigs can serve a reservoir through which this multi-drug resistance organism can spread to other animals and humans at large. Therefore, proper hygiene practices, control of indiscriminate use of antibiotics is recommended bother for prevention and control of S. aureus infection. MOJ Cell Science and Reports 5(3):78‒81. DOI: 10.15406/mojcsr.2018.05.00120
4Nsofor CA and Umeorah UE (2018). Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Staphylococci isolated from poultry and poultry environment in Owerri, Nigeria Foodborne diseases and poisoning have great public health concern worldwide. Staphylococcus is one of the foods borne pathogen responsible for causing foodborne illness worldwide after ingestion of food contaminated with staphylococcal toxins. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococci isolated from poultry and poultry house environment in Ihiagwa, Imo State, Nigeria. A total of 140 samples which includes cloacal swabs, body swabs, footpad swabs, water and environment swabs were collected under aseptic precautions using a sterile swab stick and cultured on mannitol salt agar. Staphylococcus was identified based on their conventional cultural characteristics, Gram staining reaction and standard biochemical tests. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the disk diffusion technique according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) on Mueller-Hinton Agar. Out of 140 samples of poultry and poultry house environment, 90 (64.38%) yielded Staphylococcal isolates. The highest prevalence of Staphylococcal isolates in farm A was recorded in footpad (72%), while the least was observed in the body (42.86%). In farm B, the highest prevalence was observed in water, environment, cloacal samples (100% of each), and least was the body (71.43%). Most of the isolates were resistant to Nalidixic acid (62.50%) followed by Sulphamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (60.94%), Erythromycin (57.81%), Oxacillin (54.69%) and were sensitive to Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid (68.75), Amoxycillin (62.50), Ampicillin (56.25%), and Norfloxacin (50%). This study highlighted the high prevalence and antibiotic resistance; thus, the need to adopt new strategies in the control of antibiotic resistance cannot be overemphasized. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biotechnology, 6(4), 2018, 87-94.
5Justina Ugochi Udensi, Toochukwu Ekwutosi Ogbulie, Emeka-Nwabunnia Ijeoma, Nkeiruka Uche Chikezie, Ugochukwu Mmasi Godson, Awurum Ivy Nwaku and Ifeyinwa Celestina Mgbemena (2017 STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF HYDRAULIC DREDGING AND DISPOSAL OPERATIONS ON WATER QUALITY OF NWORIE RIVER, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA A study was done to ascertain the effect of hydraulic dredging and spoils disposal on the physicochemical parameters of Nworie River. The study was carried out from July 2010 to January 2012. Water samples were collected prior to, during and monitored several months after dredging. The samples were collected from 5 stations: Station 1 was the dredging point, stations 2 and 3 were 250m and 500m upstream of the point, while and stations 4 and 5 were 250m and 500m downstream of it respectively. The physicochemical parameters of the water were analysed prior to dredging and most of the values obtained were within the acceptable limit of established water standards. The pH was within the range of 6.5-7.8, Temperature 27.6-29.9°C, Conductivity 34-196µs/cm, Turbidity 0-76NTU, TDS 22.1-127.4 mg/l, TSS 9-51 mg/l, Nitrate 1.2- 33.6mg/l, Phosphate 0.2-3.7mg/l, Sulphate 0- 33 mg/l, Dissolved Oxygen 4.3-9.4 mg/L and BOD52.5 - 7.9 mg/l. During the dredging, the water physico-chemistry changed: pH values decreased drastically to 4.6, DO to 1.3mg/l, Nitrate to 1.2 mg/l. The temperature increased to 30. 2°C, Turbidity 620NTU, TSS 349mg/L, Conductivity 498µs/cm, TDS 249 mg/l, BOD519.1mg/l, Sulphate 33mg/l and Phosphate was 0.92mg/l. Three months after the dredging, the values for the parameters returned to their pre-dredging concentrations, however during the rainy season, as the leachates and silts from the spoils were washed into the river, this prolonged the recovery of the river system to 9 months. This implies that the effect of dredging on the river is of short term but the disposal of the excavated materials at the river bank compounded and prolonged these impacts. Keywords: Hydraulic, Dredging, Disposal Operations, Quality, Physiochemical, Nworie River International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis ISSN: 2328-7667 DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20170502.12 5(2): 25-31
6Akujobi Campbell Onyeka, Anuforo Henry Uzoma, Ogbulie Tochukwu Ekwutosi and Ezeji Ethelbert Uchechukwu. (2017) STUDY ON GENERATION OF BIOELECTRICITY USING POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELL The capability of simultaneously generating bioelectricity and treating piggery wastewater using microbial fuel cell (MFC) with indigenous exoelectrogens was demonstrated. Three units of H – type MFCs were constructed using 0.1M potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) as catholyte and carbon-carbon (CC), carbon – copper (CCu) and copper – copper (CuCu) electrodes of surface area 0.0071m2 each. The BOD and COD of the test piggery wastewater were 420mg/L and 1057mg/L respectively. While coulombic efficiency (CE) of the MFCs after 25 days were 76%, 72% and 5.10%, COD removal were 83%, 48% and 49% for CC, CCu and CuCu respectively. Highest voltage recorded were 752.4mV, 1027mV and 625.2mV across CC, CCu and CuCu respectively. Generation of voltage proportionally decreased with decreasing external resistors. Power density which increased with decreasing external resistance across each MFC until 200Ω beyond which decrease became evident, peaked at 60.94mW/m2(92.6mA/m2), 39.94mW/m2(75.0mA/m2) and 14.21mW/m2 (44.70mA/m2) across Rext= 1000Ω for CC, CCu and CuCu respectively. This depicts that carbon used as both cathode and anode produced more bioelectricity than other combinations. Bacteria isolated from the surface of anodes include, Lactobacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Streptococcusspp., Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Aeromonas spp., Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium spp. and Salmonella spp. Plasmid profile of the bacterial isolates in the original wastewater sample revealed that Lactobacillusspp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Aeromonas spp had plasmids. These findings show that with better designs and optimization, the performance of the MFCs can be enhanced. Keywords: Coulombic Efficiency, Bioelectricity, Carbon-Carbon, Microbial Fuel Cell, Potassium Ferricyanide Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering DOI: 10.11648/j.cbe.20170201 2(1): 5-13
7Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE, Henry Uzoma ANUFORO, Campbell Onyeka AKUJOBI, Augusta Anurika NWACHUKWU And Winifred Onyinye OKIK (2017) POTENTIAL EXOELECTROGENIC BACTERIA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM PIGGERYWASTEWATER USED IN GENERATION OF BIOELECTRICITY AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT The ability of bacteria in anode chambers of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to transfer electrons from their respiratory chains to anode distinguishes it into mediator or mediator-less MFC. Two groups of 3 MFCs each were constructed with either potassium permanganate as the electron acceptor or potassium ferricyanide. Electrodes used were carbon-carbon (CC), carbon –copper (CCu) and copper – copper (CuCu) in each group. The initial BOD and COD of the piggery wastewater were 420mg/L and1057mg/L respectively. After 25 days, coulombic efficiency recorded were 69%, 84%, 74%, 76%,72% and 5.10%, while COD removal 65%, 51%, 47%, 83%, 48% and 49% for CCP, CCuP, CuCuP, CCF, CCuF and CuCuF respectively. Maximum power density (at Rext= 1000Ω) observed were 79.27mW/m2, 156.32mW/m2, 92.29mW/m2, 60.94mW/m2, 39.94mW/m2 and 14.21mW/m2 for CCP, CCuP, CuCuP, CCF, CCuF and CuCuF respectively. Although Streptococcus sp., Salmonella sp., Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium sp., Shigella sp .and Aeromonas sp. were biochemically identified before treatment of wastewater, but Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, Shigella sp. and Aeromonas sp. did not persist after treatment. Molecular analysis confirmed the absence of Clostridium botulinum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Clostridium butyricum andRhodobacter ferrireducens, which are known exoelectrogens on the surface of anodes. Plasmid profile revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., and Aeromonas sp. carried plasmids. Studies should be undertaken using these persistent bacteria in isolation to ascertain their individual capabilities, together with other cheaper, more environmentally friendly catholyte for better outputs. Keywords: Bacteria, Wastewater, Bioelectricity, Exoelectrogen, Mediator, Piggery, Plasmid Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie Tom. XXIV, Issue: 1, 2017, pp. 30-39
8Henry Uzoma ANUFORO, Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE, Campbell Onyeka AKUJOBI and Ethelbert Uchechukwu EZEJI (2017) STUDY ON THE USE OF MICROBIAL FUEL CELL AS WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTION TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY FROM PIGGERY WASTEWATER Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating bioelectricity from piggery wastewater. Exoelectrogens in the wastewater were harnessed and 0.1M potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution served as electron acceptor. Three units of 2-chambers MFCs with carbon-carbon (CC), carbon – copper (CCu) and copper-copper (CuCu) electrodes were constructed. Using piggery wastewater of BOD, 420mg/L and COD, 1057mg/L, the highest open-circuit voltage(OCV) recorded were 969.6mV, 1228.5mV and 1338.5mV for CC, CCu and CuCu respectively. The voltage recorded across the MFCs was observed to decrease with decreasing external resistance. The highest power density (at Rext= 1000Ω) were 79.27mW/m2 (105.7mA/m2), 156.32mW/m2 (148.4mA/m2) and 92.29mW/m2 (114.0mA/m2) for CC, CCu and CuCu respectively. Generally, power density increased with decreasing external resistance across each MFC until 200Ωbeyond which it decreased. After 25daysoperation of the MFCs, the coulombic efficiency of the MFCs were 69%, 84% and 74%, while COD removal was 65%, 51% and47% for CC, CCu and CuCu respectively. Moreover, carbon-carbon electrodes mix was found to be better in the generation of electricity and wastewater treatment than copper – copper electrodes or their combinations. Pre and post bacteria isolation and identification revealed the presence of Lactobacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus sp., Proteus mirabilis, Enterobactersp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Aeromonas sp., Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium sp.and Salmonella sp. in the test piggery wastewater. This study, therefore, paved the way for further optimization and scale-up for a better harvest of energy and wastewater treatment. Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cell, Potassium permanganate, Electrodes, Plasmid, Bioelectricity Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologi Tom. XXIV, Issue: 1, 2017, pp. 40-47
9Chioma Okore, Linda Nwaehiri, Ogechukwu Mbanefo, Toochukwu E Ogbulie, Assumpta Ugenyi, Ifeanyi Ogbuka, Agunna Ejele and Ikechukwu Okwujiako (2017) STUDY ON MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. Through culture enrichments, we isolated nine bacterial genera: Staphylococcus aureus 9.1 %, Bacillus sp. 21.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27.3%, Corynebacterium spp., 9.1%, Streptococcus spp., 9.1%, Micrococcus spp., 12.1%, Enterobacter spp., 3.0%, Proteus spp., 6.1%, Escherichia coli 3.0% from numerous contaminated soils and water samples We characterized the bacterial strains that can utilize different hydrocarbons (diesel, petrol, kerosene, crude oil, vegetable oil) using βhaemolysis, methylene blue plate assay, drop collapse test, oil displacement and emulsification index; 16 isolates (66.7%) produced βhaemolysis, 6 isolates (25%) positive for methylene blue assay, 16 isolates (66.7%) collapsed in drop collapsing test. The oil spreading test on diesel, N8 (85 mm, Bacillus sp.) and N12 (80 mm, Pseudomonas sp.) displayed the highest values. The emulsification index on diesel N22 (71 mm, Proteus sp), N7 (67 mm, Pseudomonas sp.) recorded the highest. All strains tested, emulsified the oil to varying degrees and their ability to produce biosurfactant ascertained. Keywords:-Diversity, biosurfactant, bacteria, environmental samples ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res 5(6 ), 1387-1396
10Chioma Okore, Linda Nwaehiri, Ogechukwu Mbanefo, Toochukwu E Ogbulie, Assumpta Ugenyi, Ifeanyi Ogbuka, Agunna Ejele and Ikechukwu Okwujiako (2017) STUDY ON EFFECT OF MONOVALENT AND DIVALENT SALTS ON THE PRODUCTION OF BIOSURFACTANT AND EMULSIFICATION INDEX. Biosurfactants are produced by microorganisms and are used in industrial and environmental applications as a result of their resistivity to harsh conditions. Their production can be affected by extreme environmental conditions like pH, salinity, temperature, aeration. In view of this, we studied the effect of monovalent salt (KCl) and divalent salt (MgCl2) on the biosurfactant producing activity and emulsification index of five bacterial strains ( Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus sp.). The KCl and MgCl2 increased the biosurfactant production of all bacterial strains. The KCl affected emulsification index (E24) of all the strains except Proteus sp. that recorded the highest E24 of 41.6% with the addition of 0.4 g KCl. The MgCl2 increased the E24 of Bacillus sp. (52.4%; 0.1 g); Corynebacterium sp. (50%; 0.1 g); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (56%; 0.2 g); Proteus sp. (57.7%; 0.4 g). These bacterial isolates can be used in industries and environmental applications as a result of their tolerance to salt. Keywords:-Biosurfactant production, emulsification index, monovalent salt, divalent salt ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res 5(6 ), 1875-1881
11Chioma Okore, Linda Nwaehiri, Ogechukwu Mbanefo, Toochukwu E Ogbulie, Assumpta Ugenyi, Ifeanyi Ogbuka, Agunna Ejele and Ikechukwu Okwujiako (2017) STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM SOME BACTERIAL SPECIES. Biosurfactant are produced by some microorganisms. Kerosene was used as a substrate to enhance the production of biosurfactant by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. Staphylococcus aureus produced the highest 0.5 g, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus sp. 0.2 g, Corynebacterium sp. the least 0.1 g. The biosurfactant demonstrated antibacterial activity against the test bacteria (Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave the highest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Corynebacteriumsp., (25 mm). The biosurfactant produced by Staphylococcus aureus gave the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39 mm), Corynebacteriumsp., and Proteus sp. (30 mm), Bacillus sp. the least zone (25 mm). The production of biosurfactant and antibacterial efficacy can thus be promising for use in medical, therapeutics, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and beverages for treatment and control of diseases caused by microorganisms. Keywords:-Biosurfactant production, antimicrobial activity, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillussp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteussp., Corynebacterium sp. ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 581-586
121.)Chioma Okore, Linda Nwaehiri, Oge Mbanefo, Toochukwu Ogbulie, Ifeanyi Ogbuka, Assumpta Ugenyi, Agunna Ejele and Ikechukwu Okwujiako (2017) THE USE OF RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) TO STUDY THE GENETIC VARIATION OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCING BACTERIA Biosurfactants are a structurally diverse group of surface-active substances produced by microorganisms. A total of 65 bacteria spp. were isolated from environmental samples and were identified using various biochemical tests. Eleven out of the 65 bacterial isolates with codes 1HC (Bacillus cereus), 2HC (Corynebacterium) 3C and 15HC (Streptococcus sp.), 5HC (Micrococcus leutus), 6C (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 7HC (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 10HC (Bacillus sp.), 12HC (Escherichia coli), 13HC (Staphyloccocus aureus) and 14HC (Proteus sp.) were screened for biosurfactant producing ability using the conventional methods: βhaemolysis, methylene blue agar and emulsification index tests. These served as standards to screen the other 54 bacterial isolates for the chromosomal and plasmid-mediated ability for biosurfactant production. The RAPD shows that the genes coding for biosurfactant production occurs in the chromosomal DNA of some of these bacterial strains. The bands indicate the gene coding for biosurfactant production. The relatedness of these isolates was ascertained using PyElph software. Keywords: Biosurfactant, Chromosomes, Plasmids, RAPD. Academic Journal of Science, ISSN: 2165-6282:: 07(03):267–286

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