Publications and Abstract of Research

Chemistry Department (2017-2018)

List of 2017-2018 Publications and Abstract of Research from Chemistry Department

School of Physical Science

S/NAuthor's Name & year of publicationTitle of workAbstractJournal NameJournal Vol./Number
32Iwu I.C Oze R.N Onu U.L Nkwoada A.U Ukaoma A.A 2018 Phytochemical and GC/MS analysis of the Rhizome officinale plant grown in eastern Nigeria A Ni-Al composite was electrodeposited on a Ni substrate, and its corrosion behavior was observed in 2 M NaCl solution, compared with a pure Ni coating. The Al particles increased the porosity of the composite and encouraged charge percolation, both at the corrosion product layer-solution interface and at the substrate–solution interface, based on EIS characterization. This phenomenon greatly decreased the corrosion potential, and increased both cathodic and anodic current densities in the active region, as well as the passive current density in the passive potential range, during polarization of the composite. Although a continuous Al 3+ ions supply to the passivation front was suspected, based on the longer passivation potential of the Ni-Al composite, the simultaneous consumption of the Al products by the chloride ions is the reason for serious cracking and localized collapse of the composite corrosion layer, as confirmed by SEM. This conferred lower corrosion resistance on the Ni–Al composite, compared to the pure Ni coating, in the 2 M NaCl solution. Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta VOL 353 PP:179-186
58 sunyun liu, li liu huaxin guo Emeka Oguzie 2018 Electrochemical polymerization of polyaniline-reduced Graphene oxide composite coating on 5083 Al alloy: Role of reduced Graphene oxide DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2018.12.004 A polyaniline–reduced Graphene oxide composite (PANI-rGO) coating was electrochemically deposited on 5083 Al alloy by potentiostatic method. The coating was characterized by stereoscopic microscopy, SEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS measurements. The anticorrosion performance of PANI-rGO coating was studied using potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements in aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution. Results obtained show that the presence of rGO facilitated electro-polymerization of PANI and accelerated the passivation of the Al alloy. The PANI-rGO coating presented good corrosion protection properties Electrochemistry Communications Vol 98
42 Nkwoada A.U Alisa C.O Enenebeaku C.K Oguzie E.E 2018 Studies on adsorptive behavior of Cd2+ on graphene oxide: alternative Novel approach DOI: 10.9734/ACRI/2018/ 39700 Certain adsorptive mechanisms and interactions often exist within linearized kinetic functions which are largely unreported. A novel inverse saturation modeling was applied to evaluate the adsorptive behavior of super-saturation, saturation, and desorptive processes on linear kinetic function plots using pseudo 1st order, pseudo 2nd order, Elovich and Intra-particle diffusion. Graphene oxide was prepared by room temperature synthesis and used as adsorbent over Cd2+ adsorbate. Batch adsorption process was conducted and four error functions were utilized. The sum of squares of the errors and Sum of absolute errors identified pseudo 2nd order as having the least deviation at 0.113 and 0.337 respectively. The modelled pseudo 1st order reaction had R2 = 0.985 while the inverse saturation model had R2 value of 0.998, both been a better data fit than non-modelled pseudo 1st order R2 at 0.917. The slower reaction kinetics in pseudo 1st order was due to super-saturation during adsorption as shown by inverse saturation point. The correlation coefficient of modeled kinetic plot of pseudo 2nd order, Intra particle diffusion and Elovich had R2 = 1. Elovich inverse saturation plot showed that the graph was an L-isotherm type indicating progressive saturation. The rate determining step experienced by Intra-particle diffusion was accommodated by wide range of inverse saturation plots showing adsorption, super-saturation and desorption as points of greatest influence. The inverse saturation plot of pseudo 2nd order plot had absolute slope of 2.656 and large intercept of 24.815 driving its faster reaction kinetics. Hence, the inverse saturation point modeling provided a much better interpretation of adsorptive behavior of Graphene oxide adsorbent over Cd2+ adsorbate. Archives of current research International Vol 12 Issue 4 Pg. 1-11
44 Nwoko C.I.A Nkwoada A.U Okoji J.O 2018 An Experimental Investigation of Pristine barite adsorption DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20180704.12 Characterization of the pristine barite mineral was established using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). Barite was applied for sodium oleate and sodium palmitate adsorption in aqueous solutions. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted into two adsorption isotherms, three kinetic models and thermodynamic study. The concentration of the ion and pH in the solution proved to be a controlling factor in the adsorption process. Sodium oleate and sodium palmitate soaps adsorbed strongly onto the barite mineral at pH 9 and a temperature of 293k. They result was affected by the high bulk density and chemical resistance nature of barite indicated by successive increase in dosage amount. The effect of concentration and time typically gave a C-type adsorption isotherm. Adsorptive isotherm showed that sodium palmitate adsorption over natural barite was better described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm while oleate desorption gave a good fitting with Freundlich isotherm. The adsorptive kinetics of sodium palmitate fitted well into pseudo 1st order and 2nd order kinetics. Intra particle diffusion was not the rate-determining step. Thermodynamic study showed a physic-sorption that was exothermic. Hence the findings showed that pristine barite absorbs at optimum pH and temperature of 9 and 293K. American Journal of Physical Chemistry Vol 7 Issue 4 Pg. 63-72
59Bin zhang, x.y san, x.x wei, oguzie E.E 2018 Quasi-in-situ observing the growth of native oxide film on the FeCr 15 Ni 15 austenitic alloy by TEM DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2018.06.029 Element Cr imparts non-crystallinity effect on the oxide film on iron. Therefore, in contrast with the oxidation of iron, the oxidation process of Fe-Cr alloys is more complicated. By means of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopic (HAADF-STEM) imaging combined with electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and super-X electron dispersed spectroscopy (Super-X EDS) techniques in an aberration-corrected TEM, we have clarified the evolution in the oxide film formed on a FeCr15Ni15 alloy. The oxide film is identified to be amorphous at the initial oxidation stage, but tends to become crystalline in the inner layer after aging in air. Corrosion Science Vol 140
51 Demian Ifeanyi Njoku Ying Li Hassane Lgaz Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie 2017 Dispersive adsorption of Xylopia aethiopica constituents on carbon steel in acid-chloride medium: A combined experimental and theoretical approach DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2017.11.051 Ethanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica pod was investigated as a green corrosion inhibitor for the protection of Q235 carbon steel in 0.25 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M NaCl solution using a combined experimental, density functional study (DFT) and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). The nature of organic species present in the extract was assessed using combined gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gravimetric data showed that the corrosion mitigating efficacy increased with extract concentration but decreased only slightly over prolonged exposure. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and water contact angle goniometer results revealed adsorption of organic species from the extract on the steel surface, while potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) results revealed a potential dependent adsorption-desorption of the inhibiting species with the potential of unpolarizability around 100 mV versus Ecorr. The physical protective effects of the adsorbed extract constituents were confirmed by various advanced surface microscopy examinations. Density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were undertaken to describe the electronic and adsorption properties of the individual extract active constituents including the synergistic/dispersive interactive effects of the multiple adsorptions of the various active constituents in the inhibitor film on the iron surface. Journal of Molecular Liquids Vol 249
50 Zhang B Jia-Horng wang Wu E Emeka Oguzie 2018 unmasking chloride attack on the passive film of metals doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04942-x Nanometer-thick passive films on metals usually impart remarkable resistance to general corrosion but are susceptible to localized attack in certain aggressive media, leading to material failure with pronounced adverse economic and safety consequences. Over the past decades, several classic theories have been proposed and accepted, based on hypotheses and theoretical models, and oftentimes, not sufficiently nor directly corroborated by experimental evidence. Here we show experimental results on the structure of the passive film formed on a FeCr15Ni15 single crystal in chloride-free and chloride-containing media. We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to directly capture the chloride ion accumulation at the metal/film interface, lattice expansion on the metal side, undulations at the interface, and structural inhomogeneity on the film side, most of which had previously been rejected by existing models. This work unmasks, at the atomic scale, the mechanism of chloride-induced passivity breakdown that is known to occur in various metallic materials. Nature Communications Vol 9 Issue 1
32 Iwu I.C Oze R.N Onu U.L Nkwoada A.U Ukaoma A.A 2018 Phytochemical and GC/MS analysis of the Rhizome officinale plant grown in eastern Nigeria Phytochemical and GC-MS analysis of zingiber offinale was carried out in the laboratory and with the aid of SHIMAZU Japan Gas Chromatography 5890-11 with a fused GC column OV 101 coated with polymethyl silicon (0.25 mm x 50 m). The result obtained confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and phenols in The plant. Twelve peaks were obtained from the he spectra of the GC-MS. peak 1 corresponds to Furan-3-carboxaldehyde with m/z 128 and molecular formulae C6H8O2, peak 2 was identified as Benzene -1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-4hexenyl)-4-methyl m/z 202 with molecular formulae C15H22. Peak 3 as ,1-,3-cyclohexadiene-5- (,5 diethyl-4-hexenyl -2-methyl (zingiberene) m/z 204 with molecular formulae C15H24, peak 4 as Alpha farnesene m/z 204 with molecular formulae C15H24. Peaks 5,6,7,8,9,10,1,12 occurred at m/z; 220,204,194, 242, ,256, 296, 282, 296 corresponding to butylated hydrotoulene, C15H24,,cyclohexene-3- (1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl-6- methelene C15H24, 2-butanone-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl C11H14O3, methyl tetra decanoate C15H32O2, n-hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester C09H26O2, Octadec-9-enoic acid, C18H34O2, Gingerol C17H28O4 and Ricinoeic acid C18H24O2 respectively African-British Journal VOL 1 ISSUE 1 PP 43-54
48 I.O. Arukalam Meijiang Meng Haigang Xiao Emeka Oguzie 2017 Effect of perfluoro decyltrichlorosilane on the surface properties and anti-corrosion behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-ZnO coatings DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.10.09 Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-ZnO coatings modified with different amounts of perfluoro decyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) were prepared using sol-gel technique. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) examinations showed that the surface structures and roughness of the coatings were respectively influenced by the increasing addition of FDTS. The water contact angle measurements showed maximum value of 130.52° with the 0.10 g FDTS-modified coating sample. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated the coatings’ hydrophobicity was also influenced by surface chemistry. The FTIR-ATR characterization results showed there was remarkable increase in the crystallinity of 0.10 g FDTS-modified coating after modification, and was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of crystallization temperature and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results with an estimation of 71.29% percent crystallinity. The mechanical properties of the coatings were also conducted. The EIS measurements for anti-corrosion behavior showed that 0.10 g FDTS-modified coating had the highest barrier performance and lowest rate of degradation. Indeed, the obtained data have demonstrated that 0.10 g (≈ 0.18%) FDTS produced the most significantly effect on the surface and barrier properties of the coatings and thus, can effectively be used for anti-corrosion application in the marine environments. Applied Surface Science Vol 433
61 Ibeneme Sabinus Ikechukwu, Ibe Kalu Kalu, Eluwa Ndidiamaka Nchedo, Chinyem Felix Iwebunor, Nwankwo Stephen, BulusJoseph Azi, Echendu Obi Kingsley Electrical Resistivity and River Flow Velocity Studies of Ebonyi River Bridge Sites at Onicha-Oshiri and Idembia Areas, Southeastern Nigeria Pre-design Geoelectrical and River Velocity studies have been carried out at two bridge locations: Ebonyi River at Onicha-Oshiri road and Ebonyi River at Idembia Ezza. The objectives of the studies are to determine the geoelectrical parameters with respect to structure and rock type at these locations in combination with geology and carry out the analysis of the river velocity at various points. Four Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) stations and six Velocity profiles were established (two VES stations and three velocity profiles per bridge site). Three geoelectric layers were proposed for Onicha-Oshiri and four to five geoelectric layers for Idembia. These layers comprise of the Top soil with resistivity range of 290-950Ωm, Silty lateritic soil with resistivity range of 140-181Ωm, Hard lateritic soil with resistivity range of 724-860Ωm, Silty sand with resistivity range of 163-494Ωm and Mudstone with resistivity range of 52-100Ωm. Results of Onicha-Oshiri lot show that the velocity values range from 1.28ms-1 to 1.95ms-1. Along profile D, velocity values rise from point 1 to point 3. Along the present bridge profile, the values are nearly the same for points 1 and 2 and rise to 1.37ms-1 at point 3. However along profile F, the velocity value is higher at point 2 (middle of the river). At Idembia site velocity values range from 0.634ms-1. Apart from profile B where the value is highest at point 3 (edge of the river) values at profiles A and C have higher amounts at the edges and lower amounts at the central portion indicating increased scouring at the edges. The river at Onicha-Oshiri site has higher velocity possibly on the account of this site being at the youthful stage of the river. At Onicha end, the top lateriticmatter is interbedded with fresh blue shale which may be offensive to any structure. This must be taken care of during construction by aiming at the hard sandstone below. Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering 2017 Vol 2 No 2 pp. 59-65
65 Ibeneme Sabinus I, Oha Ifeanyi A, Abdulsalam Nasir N and Onuoha Mosto K Improved Mapping of the Structural Disposition of Some Younger Granite Ring Complexes of Nigeria Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data Surface and subsurface structural interpretation over a part of the Younger Granite province of Northern Nigeria using Aeromagnetic data was carried out to demonstrate the use of recently available high resolution aeromagnetic data in mapping precisely the Younger Granite. State of the art software packages were used in data reduction, processing/analysis and interpretation. Results of the aeromagnetic study show that the distinct magnetic anomalies clearly revealed in the area coincide spatially with outcropping ring complexes. Apart from outcropping ring complexes, some ring complexes without surface exposures (unexposed ring complexes) were also delineated. One of such ring complexes was studied in greater details and its lateral dimensions with that of the adjoining ring complexes were better resolved. The unexposed ring complex was found to have a surface area extent of approximately 169.5 km which is similar to that of Ririwai (180 km2), Banke (128 km2), Kudaru (174 km2) and Zuku (121 km). The results of the 3D Euler solutions indicate that the depths of the ring complexes range from outcrop to 1800 m. For the inferred unexposed ring complex, the depth ranges from 5 to 1200 m. The Younger Granites show low Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) depth values of about 4 km below the sea level indicating deeper magnetic sources. Three (3) profiles drawn along the NESW, NNW-SSE and E-W directions on the Analytic Signal map of the study area gave an overburden thickness of less than 20 m that masked the unexposed ring complex with its mappable root situated at approximately 200 m below the sea level. The Ririwai, Tibchi, Banke, Amo, Kudaru and Zuku ring complexes have outcrops of approximately 1300 m, 950 m, 920 m, 1400 m, 1150 m and 1220 m respectively above mean sea level with their mappable roots situated at approximately 400 m, 180 m, 400 m, 800 m, 10 m and 300 m respectively below the sea level. It delineated numerous lineaments as structural features whose major trend is along the NE-SW direction. It was equally observed that the ring complexes of Northern Nigeria display diverse surface plans/shapes and exhibit both inward and outward dipping structural orientations with depth. The likely reason for the unexposed nature of the newly proposed ring complex could be as a result of partial subsidence of the enclosed block on which the extrusive edifice of the central volcano originally rested probably occasioned by excess space (much subsurface accommodation) for continuously rising magma within the country rock. Its geometry is supportive of this assertion as it revealed majorly outward dipping trend with depth along different axes. Another reason could be due to incomplete fluidization along the already formed ring fracture and poor assimilation of the country rock by the fluidizing agent amidst a slow/near quiescent piece meal stopping process during the central granite intrusion phase which usually marks the end of ring complex formation. Finally, this research has demonstrated the efficacy of aeromagnetic data in delineating both outcropping ring complexes as well as those without surface exposures (outcrops). Journal of Geology & Geophysics 2018
34 Nwoko C.I.A Nkwoada A.U Onu L.C Njoku P.C Ogbonnaya D.O 2018 Phytoextarction and risk assessment synergy of three edible plants in Minning Area The phytoextraction and risk assessment synergy of Arachis hypogea(groundnut), Zea maize(Corn) and Citrullus colocynthis L. (Melon) was investigated at a mining area contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pband Zn heavy metals. The metal concentrations in plant matter and soil were determined using AAS. The average pH at 5.2 showed a slightly acidic soil while the total organic content and electrical conductivity were low. The studied metals exceeded the Nigerian FEPA guidelines as well as EU threshold values at the sites. Increase in Cd concentration in the North and South caused a corresponding decrease in plant yield. The maize appreciably accumulated more Pb than melon and groundnut. The phytoplants at the West sampling point accumulated more Zinc and melon grown at the west accumulated highest zinc concentrations of up to 1100 mg/kg. The Presence of Cu metal at low concentrations favoured an equivalent increase in weight of harvested groundnut seed. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) showed a correlation that hyper-accumulators had equivalent higher CV Journal of Scientific Research and Reports VOL 19 ISSUE 6 PG 1-12
36 Nwoko C.I.A Nkwoada A.U Onu U.L 2017 Physiochemical analysis and mineralogical composition of Enugu Coal in Nigeria for potential Utilization The abundance of coal in certain regions of Nigeria had been described as an alternative energy solution. The potential information obtained from the physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of coal samples in such regions has enabled scientist and government to make well informed decisions. Coal samples were obtained from Okpara Mine in Enugu state Nigeria and subjected to proximate, ultimate and mineralogical analyses. The results showed that the coal had uneven particle distribution with higher content of fixed carbon and lower amount of hydrogen and Volatile matter. The mineral analyses showed that the coal was rich in silicon and aluminum. The rank was bituminous coal that can be utilized for power generation, steel industry, glass manufacturing and termite process. International journal of Scientific and Technology research
35 Iwu I.C Chijioke-Okere M Onu L.U 2018 Minerals and Phytochemical Constituents of Magnifera Indica Seed The analysis on the seed kernel of Mangifera indica was carried out in the laboratory with the view of determining its phytochemical constituents as well as its mineral constituent. The sample was screened for its phytochemicals and the minerals determination was performed by the ashing method with the aid of a muffle furnace and bulk scientific atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Results obtained revealed that the seed kernel is rich in phyto-nutrients as it contains alkaloids, tannins, phenols, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Similarly, the mineral composition revealed that the seed kernel contained essential minerals such as; Potassium, 0.013mg/g, Sodium 0.788mg/g, Magnesium 0.005mg/g, Calcium 0.009mg/g, Manganese 0.039mg/g, Iron 0.101mg/g, Zinc 0.058mg/g, Copper 0.0016mg/g, Cobalt 0.010mg/g and Chromium 0.008mg/g. These results not only highlighted the usefulness of this sample but gives credence to fact that the Mangifera indica seed kernel could act as a veritable food supplements for both domesticated animals and man. African Journal of Agriculture and Food Science
57 Blessing Adindu Chidiebere Arinzechukwu Maduabuchi Chidiebere Arinzechukwu Maduabuchi Francis Chizoruo Ibe Francis Chizoruo Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie 2017 Protecting Mild Steel from Acid Corrosion Using Extract from Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Doi: 10.18052/ The anti-corrosion properties of the ethanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves on the corrosion of mild steel in both 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 was studied using gravimetric, electrochemical, Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods of corrosion monitoring. The gravimetric results revealed that the inhibitor maintained good inhibition efficiency even at 120 hours of immersion. The electrochemical results showed that OG extract functioned as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H 2 SO 4, inhibiting both the anodic and cathodic partial reactions via adsorption of the extract constituents on the metal/solution interface. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and surface examination results confirmed the adsorption of the extract, organic constituents on the mild steel surface. The results showed that OG ethanol extract functioned as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solutions international Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy Vol 73 Issue 9-21
47 Adindu Chinonso Blessing, Chidiebere Maduabuchi Arinzechukwu Ibe Francis Chizoruo, Ogukwe Cynthia Oguzie Emmanuel Emeka 2017. Protecting Mild Steel from Acid Corrosion Using Extract from Ocimum gratissimum Leaves. doi:10.18052/ The anti-corrosion properties of the ethanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves on the corrosion of mild steel in both 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4 was studied using gravimetric, electrochemical, Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods of corrosion monitoring. The gravimetric results revealed that the inhibitor maintained good inhibition efficiency even at 120 hours of immersion. The electrochemical results showed that OG extract functioned as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4, inhibiting both the anodic and cathodic partial reactions via adsorption of the extract constituents on the metal/solution interface. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and surface examination results confirmed the adsorption of the extract, organic constituents on the mild steel surface. The results showed that OG ethanol extract functioned as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy Vol 73 Pp 9-21
64 Onunkwo, A.A, Ibeneme, S.I. and Dioha, E.C. Characterization of the Chemical Facies and Assessment of the Pollution Status of the Groundwater Resources of Mgbee Area, Southeastern Nigeria The chemical facies and pollution status of the groundwater resources of Mgbee in Orlu Local Government Area of Imo State southeastern Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the portability or otherwise of the groundwater bodies in the area for its numerous intended uses. Physical and Chemical parameters as well as some heavy metals were analyzed. These physico-chemical parameters were measured using standard methods with state-of-the-art apparatus. The mean, minimum and maximum values of analyzed parameters were calculated andcompared with notable standards from regulatory agencies, just as some graphical methods of water quality presentations were used. The result showed that the groundwater system in the area is slightly acidic with high level of nitrate, iron and, to some extent, lead in some areas. Ca2+ and Cl- ions recorded very high values from Stiff, Ionic Balance, Schoeller and Box and Whisker plots indicating a CaCl rich environment. The value of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) obtained shows that the groundwater resources of Mgbee are excellent for irrigation. The Stuyfzand classification showed that the groundwater system of the area range from fresh to brackish in nature. From the index of hardness, it is observed that the groundwater system of Mgbee area is hard. Using the Durov plot, the groundwater resources of Mgbee fell in Class II (types 4-6) which indicated secondary (transition) types of water enriched by soluble SO and Cl salts of alkali metals, indicating mineralization increase up to 500 mg/l. Collins bar graph suggested S Class which implies secondary salinity (permanent hardness) usually formed by salts of strong acids and weak bases. The Piper trilinear diagram revealed one major water facies in the area which is Ca(Mg)-Cl(SO2) facies. As Mgbee town lies within the low lying plain corresponding to the basal contact of the Awka-Orlu regional escarpment, the water is expected to be dominated by the Ca2+ and Cl- ions indicating a discharge zone characterised by sluggish groundwater flow in this relatively flat area thereby permitting prolonged rockwater interaction. Direct ion exchange should then be expected during which Ca from the rock matrix will exchange the Na+ in the groundwater. From Chadha’s plot, the whole samples plotted on region seven (7) showed that alkali metals exceed alkali earths, while strong acidic anions exceed weak acidic anions. Chadha’s plot assisted in simplifying further the Ca(Mg)-Cl(SO) water facies by generating three related water types recognised as CaMg dominant Cl type water, Ca-Mg dominant SO 4 type water and Cl-dominant Ca-Mg type water. The near unity value of Pollution Index (PI) obtained for the physico-chemical constituents of the groundwater resources of Mgbee area calls for urgent attention and constant monitoring, to safeguard the health of the inhabitants of the area. There is the need to establish functional waste disposal mechanism in the area since the inhabitants depend on the groundwater for consumption purposes. PVC pipes and other non-corrosive materials are recommended for borehole constructions and pipe installations. However, remediation is needed to arrest probable increase in geochemical constituents due to new land uses. For the water to be fit for domestic use, further studies on the microbiological constituents of the groundwater are required. Futo Journal Series (FUTOJNLS) 2018 Vol 4, Issue 1, pp. 235 - 249
55 Min Cao Li liu Lei Fan E.E Oguzie 2017 Influence of Temperature on Corrosion Behavior of 2A02 Al Alloy in Marine Atmospheric Environments DOI: 10.3390/ma11020235 The corrosion behavior of 2A02 Al alloy under 4 mg/cm² NaCl deposition at different temperatures (from 30 to 80 °C) has been studied. This corrosion behavior was researched using mass-gain, scanning electron microscopy-SEM, laser scanning confocal microscopy-LSCM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-XPS and other techniques. The results showed and revealed that the corrosion was maximal at 60 °C after 200 h of exposure. The increase of temperature not only affected the solubility of oxygen gas in the thin film, but also promoted the transport of ions (such as Cl-), and the formation of protective AlO(OH), which further affects the corrosion speed. Materials Vol 11 Issue 2 Pp235-
62 Anuba Basil Ofulume, Sabinus Ikechukwu Ibeneme, Donatus Maduka Orazulike, Ibrahim Vela Haruna, Sani Aishatu, Diugo Okechukwu Ikoro, Stephen Ikpendu Nwankwo, Nnaemeka Oluchukwu Ezetoha, Joseph Azi Bulus The Gboko Limestone, Yandev, Benue State, Nigeria: Geology, Geochemistry and Industrial Potentials The Cretaceous shallow marine Gboko limestone, Yandev, Nigeria is a component of the sedimentary fill of the 800 km NE-SW trending Benue Trough, Nigeria. The limestone is made up of thin bedded to massive limestone beds interspersed with laminated grey shale having foraminifera as the dominant fossil. The limestone has both mud supported and grain supported texture, and micrites constitute about 75% of the limestone. Bulk chemical composition analysis of the limestone reveals average CaCO of 92.41% and a range of 77.50% -99.00%. Mineralogical impurities include quartz, dolomite, pyrrhotite, fluorapatite etc. Trace elements concentration analysis was carried out using Energy 3 Dispersive X-ray (EDXRF) spectrophotometry and showed the following trace elements: Mn (841.3 ppm), Sr (444.6 ppm), Fe (470 ppm), Zn (114.6 ppm) and Pb (116.4 ppm). Calcining the limestone in a laboratory muffle furnace at 1050˚C for 90 minutes produced a compact, soft burnt porous and reactive lime that does not crumble into fines. The lime so produced neither meets the requir ements of the Steel Making Shop (SMS) of the Ajaokuta Steel Plant nor could it be used in the growing sugar refining industry in Nigeria. It can however be used in the food and the food byproducts industry, environmental, agricultural and petroleum industries etc. The raw stone remains a major source of raw materials for cement manufacture for the ever expanding building industry. Geomaterials, 2017 Vol 7, pp. 51-63
40 Nkwoada A.U Alisa C.O Amakom C.M Enenebeaku C.K 2018 Establishing risk assessment from reclaimed Nekede Mechanic Village Owerri Nigeria. The current resettlement of Nekede Auto-Mechanic village by Imo State government of Nigeria created a sparse piece of land awaiting government utilization. Risk assessment was carried out on the land using existing boreholes and soil to determine land utilization potential. Analysis of the physicochemical water parameters showed that there was no contamination of boreholes. The high value of COD correlated with the high levels of Fe in soil and water samples. Heavy metals concentrations showed that Fe was very much present in the soil while Pb, Cd and Cu had reduced concentrations. Risk assessment for the soil samples showed that Fe had the highest mean and median value. The highest mean value for water was Cu metal. Highest variance value was Cu in soil while Pb had the lowest value in water. Hazard quotient of water samples showed that hazards existed for Cd, Cu and Pb but at a moderate level for Fe. Estimated daily/weekly water intake values were all below WHO/FAO standards. The soil enrichment factor showed no enrichment for Pb, minimal enrichment for Cd, moderate enrichment for Cu and significant contamination for Fe. Ecological risk assessments for the heavy metals were at low ecological risk. Potential ecological index depicts Fe and Cd at a considerable level of ecological risk. Likewise, contaminants existed at the nearby Otamiri river due to dredging and nearby waste dumps. The anthropogenic activity at the Otamiri river posed a serious environmental concern if not controlled and reclaimed. Hence, the reclamation of Nekede auto mechanic village will not be suitable for agricultural or recreational purposes. Asia Journal of Environment and Ecology Vol 7 Issue 2 Pp. 1-13
38 Duru C.E Duru I.A 2017 Adsorption capacity of maize biomass parts in the remediation of Cu2+ ion polluted water The efficiency of maize biomass parts- seed chaff, stalk, cob and husk, in the remediation of Cu2+ ion polluted water in modeled solutions was investigated. The adsorption capacity of these parts followed the order husk > stalk > cob > seed chaff with values 9.65 mg/g, 4.83 mg/g, 3.70 mg/g and 2.48 mg/g respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity of each part was reached in 45 min with the husk giving the best removal efficiency of 80.80 %. Characterization of the maize husk using PIXE showed that potassium is the main cation on this biomass, with concentration 5.602 g/kg. FTIR scans of the husk before and after adsorption of Cu2+ ions gave shifts in adsorption bands on -OH carrying molecules indicating that complexation is a mechanism in the metal ion removal process. The multi porous structure of the husk, and uniform surface coverage by ions observed from SEM images before and after adsorption, shed more light on the high adsorption efficiency shown by this natural waste material. World news of natural sciences Pp. 51-62
37 Duru C.E Duru I.A 2017 Studies of sorbent efficiencies of Maize parts in Fe (II) removal from aqueous solution doi:10.18052/www.scipress. com/ilcpa.72.1 The efficiency of the cob, sheath, seed chaff and stalk of maize plant in the removal of Fe (II) from aqueous solutions was studied. FTIR analysis of biomass surfaces before and after adsorption showed that seed chaff has the highest number of functional group coordination points. The percentage removal of Fe (II) increased with increase in pH for all the biomass parts with highest efficiency shown by the seed chaff at all the studied pH values. Metal up-take also increased with increase in seed chaff load. This direct relationship was however not shown by other parts where decreases in metal up-take were observed at high doses of the biomass. At optimum pH and biomass load, equilibrium adsorption capacities were reached in 30 minutes for all the parts. The efficiency of the biomass parts in the sorption process were in the order seed chaff>stalk>sheath>cob. At optimum conditions of the study, the seed chaff removed 73 % of Fe (II) from solution in its natural state. International letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy VOL 72 PP1-8
41 Nkwoada A.U Alisa C.O 2018 Pollution in Nigerian auto-mechanic villages: A Review DOI:10.9790/2402-1207014354 The increasing number of malfunctioning automobiles with subsequent increase in emission levels and waste handling is an environmental concern in Nigeria. The spills from lubricants, gasoline, diesel and byproducts of used and spent engine oil constitute the major pollutants in auto mechanic villages in Nigeria. Its environmental pollution has been predominant through soil and groundwater contamination and also poses a major anthropogenic threat. The studied heavy metals on contaminated soil showed that studies had focused on common metals of Cu, Cd, Pband Zn in the east and west regions, while trace metals were studied in the south and radioactive elements in the north. Statistical evaluation showed high occurrences of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in the four geo-political zones of Nigeria. The detrimental effects of auto-mechanic village activities were on humans and also disrupted growth and flowering of arable plants. The remediation application showed that soil type and contaminant characteristics play a major role in determining the type of remediation procedure to be applied. Hence, Nigeria should provide standard repairs and services to automobiles in-line with emerging technology and best environmental practices. IOSR Journal of Environment science, Toxicology and food technology Vol 12 Issue 7 Pp. 43-54
49 Simeon Nwanonenyi Henry Chinedu Obasi Iheoma Chukwujike Nwuzor Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie 2018 Inhibition of Carbon Steel Corrosion in 1 M H2SO4 Using Soy Polymer and Polyvinylpyrrolidone DOI: 10.1007/s42250-018-00035-w The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion induced in 1 M H2SO4 by soy polymer (SP) from an extract of Glycine Mac-L and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) respectively was investigated at 30–60 °C using hydrogen gas evolution, potentiodynamic polarization and quantum chemical computation technique respectively. Results obtained from hydrogen gas evolution technique revealed that SP and PVP respectively acted as an inhibitor for corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M H2SO4 solution. The increase in inhibition efficiency (IE%) of SP and PVP reached a maximum at 89.5% and 84.36% respectively, and the increment was found to be dependent on inhibitor concentration. The combination of mixture of SP and PVP as single inhibitor showed better inhibition improvement compared to individual inhibitor. Temperature study reveals that inhibition efficiency decreased with a rise in temperature suggesting physical adsorption. The computed parameters for the activation energies and heat of adsorption of the corrosion process supported the physical adsorption mechanism proposed. Regression analysis (adsorption isotherm model) was used to approximate the adsorption characteristics of the SP and PVP. Polarization data revealed that SP and PVP respectively adsorption acted as a mixed type inhibitor and also affected the anodic and cathodic partial reactions process. Quantum chemical computations were performed using the density functional theory to establish a clear link existing between the effectiveness of the inhibitor and its electronic properties. Springer
56 Maduabuchi A. Chidiebere Simeon, Nwanonenyi EmekaE. Oguzie 2017 Experimental study on the inhibitive effect of phytic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for Q235 mild steel in 1 M HCl environment The inhibitive action of phytic acid (PA) on Q235 mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl environment was investigated using electrochemical techniques. Polarization results revealed PA to be a mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl environment, while impedance results provide evidence of adsorption of the PA species on the corroding metal surface. The adsorption of PA obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies all revealed the formation of a protective film adsorbed on a steel surface. World News of Natural Science Vol 15 Pp 1-9
33 Iwu I.C Chijioke Okere M. Onu U.L Uchegbu R 2018 GC/MS phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of the leaf of Newbouldia leaves (p.beav) doi: 10.24940/ijird/2018/ v7/i7/JUL18053 The leaf of Newbouldia laevis were analyzed for its phytochemical and anti-microbial properties with the aid of; Shimazu Japan GC model 5890-11, GC-MS QP 2010 PLUS Shimazu Japan and Jenway digital Spectrophtometer model 6303. The GC-MS analysis of this sample gave the following compounds; 2- phenoxy ethyl beta -2-phenoxy ethyl-3-phenyl propanoate (1.41%), benzene-(1-methyl nonadecyl) (1.41 %), 6-phenyl undecane (1.06%), Eicosyne (2.47 %), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (13.73 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.16%), z-octadecanoic acid (22.81 %) ,9-octadecanoic acid (22.81 %) phytol (23.51 %) Oleic acid (10.56 %), octadecanoic acid. (5.97 %), squalene (7.75 %). The phytochemical composition of the sample showed that the alkaloid composition was 0.48 %, with corresponding values of 0.86.%, 0.66 %, 0.024 % and 0.86 ppm for flavonoids ,saponins, phenols and tannins respectively The extracts showed marked inhibition of the growth of seven selected pathogens; Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 mm, Staphylococcus aureus 13 mm, Escherichia coli 15 mm, Salmonella typhi 17 mm, Candida albican 11 mms, Aspergillus niger 14 mm and Penicillium12mm with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.5 mg/cm3, 12.5 mg/cm3 ,12.5 mg/cm3, 6.5 mg/cm3,12.5. mg/cm3, 12.5 mg/cm3 and 6.5 mg/cm3 respectively International journal of innovative research and Development VOL 7 ISSUE 7 PP 242-250
63 OFULUME A. B., IBE K. K., IBENEME S. I., DIOHA E. C., CHINEMELU E. S., ELUWA J. C., ONYEISE U.O. The Petrography, Geochemistry and Potential Applications of Ndi-Uduma Ukwu/Ohafia-Ifigh Limestone, Ohafia, S.E. Nigeria The Ndi-Uduma Ukwu/Ohafia-Ifigh limestone deposit is located approximately 55km East of Umuahia and about 125km Northwest of Calabar, S.E. Nigeria. This coarse grained, light to dark grey limestone is sandwiched between two carbonaceous highly fissile shale units of the Nsukka Formation forming shale-limestoneshale sequence. Outcrop samples were utilized in the petrographic investigation and geochemical analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The calcium carbonate content (% CaCO) of the limestone ranges from 65.08 to 82.41%. The samples from Ohafia-Ifigh are SO3-free and purer while the Ndi Uduma Ukwu had MgO and SO3 content of 3.34 and 1% respectively. Petrographic analysis of the limestone reveals a highly fossiliferous limestone infilled with chiefly sparry calcite with micrite envelope, consisting of foraminifera, ostracod, echinoid, bivalve stropod, coralline algae suggestive of shallow marine environment. Although the limestone does not compare with that of Shapfell, UK and Mfamosing S.E. Nigeria in chemical purity to warrant lime production with it, yet it meets some industrial raw material specification such as for cement, agriculture and poultry applications. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 2018, Vol 6, No. 1, pp. 21-26
53 Simeon Nwanonenyi Henry Chinedu Obasi Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie C. K. Anyiam 2017 Inhibition and Adsorption of Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc) on the Corrosion of Aluminium in Sulphuric and Hydrochloric Acid Environment DOI: 10.1007/s40735-017-0114-z The performance of PVAc as a safe inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in 2 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M HCl solution at varying temperatures was investigated by weight loss, polarization measurement and computational technique. Weight loss measurements showed that PVAc exhibited excellent inhibitory character within the studied environment and efficiency of inhibition increased with increasing concentration of PVAc, but decreased with rise in temperature. Also, it is observed that aluminium displayed higher susceptibility to dissolution in the hydrochloric compared to sulphuric acid. Results of free energy of adsorption suggest physical adsorption. The adsorption of PVAc on the aluminium surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm, thus showing evidence of physisorption mechanism. Polarization results revealed that PVAc functions as a mixed-type inhibitor with absolute control of the anodic reaction. Results of computational technique showed the apparent correlation between corrosion inhibition efficiency and electronic molecular structure regarding frontier molecular orbital theory. Springer journal Vol 3 Issue 53
52 XY San Bin Zhang B.wu Oguzie E.E 2017 Investigating the effect of Cu-rich phase on the corrosion behavior of Super 304H austenitic stainless steel by TEM DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2017.11.001 The precipitation of a fine Cu-rich phase dispersedly distributed in the austenitic matrix can impart the novel properties of Super 304H SS. However, the contributions have not been well understood due to the difficulty encountered in obtaining precise experimental information on the corrosion events introduced by the nano-sized Cu-rich precipitates. In this work, we have applied TEM and clarified the dissolution occurred in Cu-rich phase and the dissolution-induced evolution in structure and chemistry on the surface. This work enabled us glean atomic scale insights on the effect of the Cu-rich phase on the corrosion behavior of the Super 304H SS. Corrosion Science VOL 130
39 Anyika L.C Alisa C.O Nkwoada A.U Opara A.I Ejike E.N Onuoha G.N 2018 GIS and MATLAB modeling of criteria pollutants: A study of Lower Onitsha basin during rains DOI: 10/18801/JSTEI. 060118.47 The study of air pollutants SO2, NO2 and PM10 in lower Onitsha basin, a densely populated city was performed using GPS and Matlab modeling. The pollutants were studied in nine specific locations for 3 months of rains over 3 consecutive years with each georeferenced. The Matlab pollution model was generated by integrating the spatial database and measured pollution attributes database using a polynomial expression. SO2 highest concentration (141 µg/m3) peaked in Upper Iweka at sampling point 1 before dispersing to lower concentrated regions in Awada and Resthouse. NO2 peaked at 207 µg/m3 in Upper Iweka at sampling point 3 and driven by wind towards Borromeo area to very low concentration of 38 ug/m3. The PM10 peaked in Upper Iweka (180 µg/m3) and driven by rains towards Borromeo before increasing again in concentration levels at Awada. The AQI showed that SO2 pollutants had acceptable air quality at all sampling points while NO2 and PM10 air quality affected sensitive groups. SO2 concentration levels exceeded the National air quality standard in Nigeria (NAQS) while NO2 and PM10 were below the NAQS standard. The GIS plot showed that 3 metrological forces were driving pollutants from Upper Iweka and Awada to other sampling areas in the order of SO2> NO2> PM10. The Matlab wind speed plot showed that there was an upward wind in upper Iweka driving the pollutants towards dispersal at some other region. Thus, Upper Iweka is an active point source pollution area and dispersed to Borromeo and Awada by scavenging rains under prevailing wind speed, wind direction and humidity. Hence calls for improved monitoring and regulation to address pollution Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Informatics Vol 6 Issue 1 Pp. 443-457
43 NKwoada A.U Oguzie E.E Amakom C.M 2018 The Role and Economics of Nano grapheme functionalization in oil industry improvement DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2018 /39683 The toxic pollutants released from oil and gas activities typically take years of clean-up and reclamation. Hence, creating the need for new nano-materials that can function as adsorbents, filter membranes, and coating materials, which offer a molecular level of control in separating relevant pollutant mixtures. The advances in Graphene-family and its derivatives has proven its effectiveness to gradually replace conventional filter membranes, coatings, adsorbents, sensors for nanomaterials applications in the oilfield. The functionalization of Graphene and Graphene oxide has enabled such nano-Graphene-composite materials to be tailored to meet the new development of coatings, adsorbents, filter membranes and sensors for oil and gas applications with high scalability potentials Asia Journal of Physical and Chemical sciences Vol 5 Issue 2 Pp. 1-9
54 Ying Li's Lab I.O. Arukalam Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie Ying LiYing Li 2017 Nano-structured super hydrophobic polysiloxane coating for high barrier and anticorrosion applications in marine environment DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.10.089 The use of epoxy and polyurethane coatings as marine topcoats, have been influenced by their inherent high surface energy property which increases their affinity to water and microorganisms. Thus, their susceptibility to degradation is enhanced. Because of this defect, recently, nano-structured hydrophobic and super hydrophobic polysiloxane coatings are being preferred as topcoats. But the appropriate nano-particle size and matrix: filler ratios which provide guide for the design of desired topcoats are scarcely available. In view of this, a series of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic coatings were prepared by sol-gel process based on perfluoro decyltrichlorosilane (FDTS), different nanoZnO particles and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS):nanoZnO ratios. The liquid repellency, surface morphology and roughness of the coatings were conducted by use of contact angle goniometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Additionally, the electrochemical and salt spray corrosion tests were conducted. According to the results, modifications of the coatings showed that anticorrosion performance was considerably influenced by the surface properties which were dependent on nanoZnO size and PDMS:nanoZnO ratio. Remarkably, the optimum effect was observed on the super-hydrophobic coating based on 30 nm ZnO and 1:1 ratio. This displayed highest anticorrosion performance, and is therefore recommended as a guide for the design of marine topcoats. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science Vol 512
60 Ekeocha Christopher Ikechukwu Nwoko CIA Enenebeaku C.K 2018 se of integrated pollution indices in assessing heavy metals pollution in soils of three auto mechanic villages in Abuja doi:10.5897/AJEST2018.2548 This research work targeted at the use of integrated pollution indices models of Pollution Index (PI), Average of Pollution Index (PIAvg), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Nemerow Pollution Index (NIPINemerow) in assessing heavy metals pollution in soils of three auto mechanic villages of Abuja. Soil samples were randomly collected with a stainless hand auger to a depth range of 0 to 15 cm and were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer of model Unicam 969 Solar to determine the heavy metal contents in them. Mean concentration (mg/kg) of heavy metals from the results were observed to follow a decreasing order; Apo: Cu (7668)Zn (5360)Cr (1174)Fe (467)Pb (333)Ni (196)Cd (10.5); Kugbo: Zn(1587)Cu (1042)Cr (783)Ni (234)Fe (217)Pb (170)Cd (9.47) and Zuba: Zn(1190)Cr (767)Cu (512)Fe (279)Pb (250)Ni (127)Cd (10.4). Strong positive correlations exist between heavy metals which indicate same source of contamination, mutual dependence and identical behaviors. Results of integrated pollution indices showed that investigated soils have been polluted to various degrees ranging from low to high level pollution. This indicates deterioration of sites quality. African Journal of Environment science and Technology Vol 12 Issue 10 Pp 370-376
46 Demian Ifeanyi Njoku Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie Ying LiYing Li 2018 Journal of Molecular Liquids. DOI:10.1016/j.molliq.2017.04.087 We describe a combined experimental and density functional study of the corrosion protection of Q235 carbon steel in 0.25 M H2SO4 + 0.5 M NaCl solution by Moringa oleifera extract. The extract was characterized for this purpose using Furrier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Corrosion protection efficiency increased with extract concentration but decreased slightly over prolonged exposure time. The various electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements revealed adsorption of organic constituents of the extract on the steel surface, while the protective effect of the adsorbed extract constituents was confirmed by surface microscopy examinations. Density functional theory calculations were undertaken to describe the electronic and adsorption properties of the constituents identified in the extract. Journal of Molecular Liquids VOL 237 PP

Featured List