Crop Science Department (2017-2018)

List of 2017-2018 Publications and Abstract of Research from Crop Science Department

School of Agriculture and Agricultural Science

S/NAuthor's Name & year of publicationTitle of workAbstractJournal NameJournal Vol./Number
1Ekpe I. I., B. U. Uzoho, Ahukaemere, C. M, & S. E. Okere (2017) Assessment of Fertility Status of Irrigated Lowland Rice Growing Soils of Ebonyi South-East Nigeria A study to assess soil fertility status was conducted in the lowland rice growing soils of Ebonyi South-East Nigeria situated within latitude 60 41, N and longitude 80 51 E, and 104.40 m above sea level. The assessment covered all the villages that produce rice in the three major rice producing zones of Ebonyi state with Ebiaunuhu, Ogboji and Akaeze representing Ebonyi North, Central and South zones respectively. Soil samples were collected from the rice growing lowland zones at 0-30cm depth using soil auger attached to a core sampler. A total of 250 soil samples were collected from each of the 100 hectare lowland soils of the zones and analyzed for chemical fertility indicators. The data was analyzed for means and percentages and the results were ranked using fertility standard according to Landon. The results revealed that total nitrogen, organic matter and cation exchange capacity were in low in all the zones while P was adequate in all the zones and K was high for the soils studied. Calcium concentration was high in the north but low in the central and southern zones. The soils require good input of N-fertilizer and organic matter to boost CEC and therefore increase the yield of rice in these lowland soils of Ebonyi State. Environment and Ecology Research 5(7)
2Ekpe I.I.,Ihemtuge, S.C., Okoye, C.,Ahukaemere, C.M., Onuora, M.D. , Okere, S. E. and Nwaigwe M.O. (2017) Effect of Humanure and Rumen Digesta on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties and the Yield of Cucumber in Imo South-Eastern, Nigeria An experiment was set up in the 2015 cropping seasons to compare the effect of humanure and rumen digesta on soil physico-chemical properties and the yield of cucumber in Imo Southeast, Nigeria. The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. The treatments were made up of T1- Control = 0 kg/ha; T2 - Humanure = 10 t/ha; T3 - Rumen digesta = 10t/ha; T4 - Humanure + Rumen digesta = (5 + 5 t/ha) and T5 - Humanure + Rumen digesta = (10 + 10 t/ha). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and raw data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at p=0.05 probability level. Significant differences were separated using F-LSD. The results obtained showed that both humanure and rumen digesta significantly improved the soil bulk density, total porosity and moisture content relative to the control except the aggregate stability and textural properties of the soil. Also the soil chemical properties improved significantly when the treatments were compared with the control and when the treatments were compared with one another. The cucumber yield followed the same improvement trend. Humanure and rumen digesta combination has proved to be superior in soil nutrient enrichment for organic cucumber production in this ultisol. Futo Journal Series (FUTOJNLS) Vol. 3, Issue-1,
3Ikechi – Nwogu, C. G., Ukomadu, J. Ezediolu, B. C.and Okere, S.E (2018) Antifungal activity of siam weed (chromoleana odorata (l.) and woodland tobacco (nicotiana sylvestris (speg &comes) against phytopathogenic fungus of onions (allium cepa l.) bulb. Antifungal activities of Nicotiana sylvestris and Chromoleana odorata against phytopathogenic fungus of onions bulb were assessed at the Plant Physiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt Nigeria. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavoniods, alkaloids, phenols and glycosides in both plants but terpenoids were only found in C. odorata. The efficacy of the plant extracts varied at various concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 150mg/mL–1). Extracts from C. odorata showed progressive retardations of the mycelial growth and high fungitoxic effect on the growth of Aspergillus niger at 75% concentration at 100 mg mL–1. N. sylvestris extract decreased the growth of the fungi but not as effective as C. odorata. The aqueous extracts of C. odorata at 75g/100 mL concentration gave the best inhibition of 1.66±0.06a while N sylvestris at 75g/100 mL gave 5.22±0.03b. It is recommended that these plants be used as natural fungicides as they possess antifungal potentials. Int’l Journal of Agric. and Rural Dev.(IJARD) Vol. 21(2)
4Okere, S.E., & Ataga, A.E. (2018) Okere, S.E., & Ataga, A.E. (2018) Elicitors and mineral content of water extract from autoclaved spent mushroom (pleurotus tuber-regium) substrate and its effect on cassava inoculated with african cassava mosaic virus(ACMV) This study investigated the effect of the water extract from spent mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium) substrate (autoclaved) on the mineral compositions and resistant elicitors and on the growth, yield and management of African cassava mosaic virus. The treatments for this investigation comprised of cassava plants treated with autoclaved and unautoclaved water extract from spent mushroom substrate and untreated cassava plants as control. The treatment were applied 4 months after culturing from meristem tip culture and inoculated with viral inoculum 7 days after treatment application and then transplanted. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. The mineral compositions and elicitors in the treatments were analysed using standard procedures. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at (p=0.05).The results revealed significant differences in the values of elicitors: carbohydrate polymers (1.6-33.4%), glycoproteins (0.04-0.90%) and lipid molecules (0.2-18.0g).PTAWESMS had 15.52 mg/100g and 33.64mg/100g higher K and Na than PTWESMS which had 8.94 and 24.21mg/100g for K and Na respectively which were significantly difference. PTAWESMS had 6.3, 39.2 and 76.5 significantly higher number of stems , LAI and LAR than PTWESMS and the control while the other growth parameters were not significantly different. PTWESMS had 8.33 and 35cm significantly higher number of storage roots and storage root length when it was compared with PTAWESMS and the control, while PTWESMS and PTAWESMS had 17.3mm significantly higher root girth than the control. The control had 2.5 severity index at 4WAI significantly higher than PTAWESMS and PTWESMS, while at 28 WAI, the control had 1.37 significantly higher severity index than PTAWESMS and PTWESMS. The result obtained from this investigation clearly revealed that PTWESMS and PTAWESMS significantly reduced ACMD severity when it was compared with the control. It also revealed that unautoclaved water extract SMS performed significantly better than the autoclaved in reducing ACMD severity. However the reductions in ACMD severity did not translate to higher growth and yield of cassava. Therefore it is recommended that ACMD management using water extract from P. tuber-regium should be complimented with the application of solid SMS in order to achieve the desired results. Nigerian Journal of Plant Protection (NJPP) Vol. 32,
5Ogbedeh, K.O., Ekwe, C.P.Ihejirika, G.O. Dialoke, S.A.Onyewuchi, O.P.Anyanwu, C.P. Bosah, B.O..Kalu, I.E., Cookey C.O., Nnebue, O.M. Effect of Palm bunch as and Neem (Azaradirachia indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri ultisol, South- eastern, Nigeria As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development especially during prolonged dry spell. Efect of palm bunch ash and neem (Azaradirachia indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri ultisol, South- eastern, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teachin and Research farm of the Department of Crop Science and Technology. Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into the randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0,2.0 tones/ha respectively. Data wre collected on prcentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were separated using least significant differnce at 5% level of probability. Result shows that there were no significan (P<0.05) difference in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch as and neem leaf powder applciations. Contrarily, plam bunch as at 2.0 tons/ha recorded least termite incident especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) AND 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm buch ash at 2.0 tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively Life Science journal 16(5) 79-85
6Ihejirika, G.O. Onyewuchi, O.P. Ofor, M.O. Ogbedeh, K.O. Ojiako, F.O. Elesi, C.U. Evaluation of intercropping watermelon and Amaranthus on some field Disease and yield of Groundnut in Owerri, Imo State Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) is one of the most valuablelegume crop, which served as food and cash crop and mostly exported for their oil. Groundnut oil is used in making margarine, cooking salad oils and soap and after oil extraction, a dry cake that remains is a valuable protein-rich livestock feed. Experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons in the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal University of Technology Owerrri FUTO. This compirsed of four levels of intercropping: Sole groundnut (control); Groundnut/watermelon; Groundnt/Amaranthus and Groundnut/Watermelon/ Amaranthus respectively. The experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete block Design (RCBD) with six (6) replications. Intercropping significantly influenced groundnut heights and severity of leafspot and blight at 5% level of probability in both 2014 and 2015. Groundnut/Watermelon/Amaranthus had the highest plant height, 27.37cm; 30.33cm while the least 20.53cm; 23.10cm was recorded on sole groundnut plots in 2014 and 2015 respectively, Sole groundnut recorded the highest blight severity 6.32%; 9.10% while Groundnut/Watermelon has the lowest 3.86%; 5.45% in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Similarly, sole groundnut recorded the highest leaf spot severity 8.17%; 9.86% while groundnut/watermelon had the lowest 4.05%; 5.25% in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Groundnut/Watermelon also recorded the highest seed yield 19.04 tons/ha; 20.15 tons/ha followed by Sole groundnut 15.55 tons/ha; 17.02 tons/ha in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Aspergillus spp, Fusarium spp., Penincillum spp., Cercospora spp, Mucor spp and lastomyces spp. Were associated with diseased groundnut. Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment 5(1)
7 Alagba R.A., Obiefuna, J.C., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Onyewuchi, O.P., Ofor, M.O., Okoli, N.A., Adikuru, N.C., Emma-Okafor, L.C and Peter-Onoh, C.A (2017) Depth of planting and mulching: critical agronomic aspects (cultural practices) in late season plantain establishment in rainforest agroecology of southeastern Nigeria The experiment examined the influence of six mulch sources (trash, wood shavings, palm frond, saw dust, black polythene sheet and no mulch (control) and three planting depths (60x60x60 cm, 60x60x80 cm and 60x60x100 cm) on soil macro biological life, soil moisture content and soil temperature during late season plantain establishment. A 3x6 factorial experiment was fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The land was cleared manually. Planting depths were prepared, treated with poultry manure at 10 tha-1. Each planting depth received 4 tha-1 of appropriate mulch except black polythene. After two weeks, plantain sword suckers were planted in December 2010. Core soil samples were collected at each planting depth for pre and post experimental soil physicochemical analyses, soil macro biological life count and percentage soil moisture determination. Soil temperature was monitored at each depth using soil thermometers. All data for plantain were collected and analysed using Genstat. Mean separation was done using the least significant difference (LSD) at 5 % level of probability. Planting depths and mulches significantly (P<0.05) reduced soil temperature during 1 - 4 months after planting. The 60x60x80 cm depths mulched with saw dust recorded lowest soil temperatures at 1 and 2MAP (28.670C and 28.690C). Trash mulched plots of same dimension recorded lowest temperature (29.330C) at 3 MAP respectively. Percentage soil moisture content, soil macro biological life and plantain sucker sprout were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced within 3 months after planting. The 60x60x100 cm plots mulched with black polythene sheets conserved the highest soil moisture (20.12, 21.95 and 24.41 %) at 1-3 MAP respectively. The 60x60x80 cm and 60x60x100 cm planting depths mulched with same mulch types recoded 100 % sucker sprout at 3MAP respectively
7Adikuru, N.C., Francis, A.A., Anyanwu, C.P., Onwubiko, N.C and Alagba, R.A (2017) Preliminary evaluation of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc)for growth and reproductive characteristics in Owerri southeastern Nigeria Ten (10) accessions of Bambara groundnut were evaluated in the field to identify those with promising growth characteristics under the humid environment of Owerri in Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The vegetative growth parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, root dry matter and shoot dry matter, while reproductive and yield parameters were days to first flower, days to 50 % flowering , number of fresh pods and weight of fresh pods. Significant differences were observed among the accessions at the vegetative phase but not at the reproductive phase. TVSu-9 with the highest number of fresh pods per plant, TVSu-513 with the highest weight of fresh pods per plant and TVSu-1659 could be further evaluated for stability in the characters before being introduced to farmers in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture Food and Environment (NJAFE) 13 (4):103-107
8Emma-Okafor L.C., Obiefuna, J.C., Alagba, R.A., Okoli, N.A., Nnebue O.M., Keyagha, E.R and Ibeawuchi, I.I. (2018) Pineapple Forage Legume Intercropping Systems for Sustainable Pineapple Production in the Tropical Rainforest of Southeastern Nigeria. Weeding and soil impoverishment are the major constraints in pineapple production in the high rainforest agroecology of Southeastern Nigeria. The study exploited the biological aspects of four perennial legumes mucuna, puero, calapo and centro laid out in three populations: 20,000, 10,000 and 5,000 respectively. The control was mulched with wood shavings (5 cm depth). The 4 x 3 factorial experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The experimental plot were 4.0 x 4.0 m with pineapple suckers planted in 50.0 x 50.0 cm double row system with 100cm alleys. Pre and post experimental soil samples were analyzed for soil macro biological populations (bio-index) and physico-chemical properties. Most mucuna seeds (80-89 %) emerged very early (5- 6 DAP) while calapo, puero and centro emerged late (42-60 DAP) with low (62-68%) establishment. Mucuna legume population of 20,000 plant/ha was very aggressive and suppressed both weed and pineapple despite regular mucuna training. The same populations of the other three forage legumes were efficient weed suppressors and yield enhancers. Except for centro which remain alive, the other forage legumes died back during the dry season but regenerated vegetatively and by selfseeding during the rains. Nodulation was high in centro populations. Pineapple intercropped with 20,000 mucuna matured early 508 days after planting and produced the highest individual fruit yield (3.8 kg) followed by those with), mucuna (10,000) centro (20000) and calpo (10,000) plants respectively. The soil physico-chemical properties and biological indicator significantly (p<0.05) increased by 36.0 and 85.0 % respectively over the control. Intercropping pineapple with 10000-20000 mucuna, and centro populations is recommended. Further research on cutting back frequency for high mucuna population, breaking seed dormancy and slow growth rate improvement in centro is advocated. Keyword: Pineapple intercropping, Mucuna . Mucuna, puero, calapo and centro population. FUTO Journals Volume - 4, Issue 2. PP.-1-9
9Emma-okafor, L.C., Okoli, N.A., Alagba, R.A., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Obiefuna, J.C. and Keyagha E.R. (2017) Fruiting patterns of explants from acropetal loci of pineapple growth axis Pineapple with low multiplication ratio (1:3) is vegetatively propagated using available sucker, crown and slips. Rapid multiplication techniques generated massive propagule production. Field report from commercial pineapple growers indicated significant (p=0.05) growth and yield variations among the explants developed on various loci along the pineapple stem. This experiment carried out in 2013 cropping season at Federal University of Technology, Owerri, studied the fruiting of explants (250+ 5g) derived from the anterior, central, posterior loci and crown of mature pineapple stump. Same weight (250+ 5g) sucker was the control. The treatments consisted of four loci explants manured with three poultry manure rates 5, 10, 20 tha-1 respectively. Uniform explants (250+5g) were established in 50.0 x 50.0cm double row system with 100.0cm inter double row alley. The 4x3 factorial experiment was executed in a randomized complete block design of three replicates. The anterior and central loci explants matured uniformly early at 500-520DAP and produced heavy pineapple fruits 3.8kg/plant. Fruit yield of the control was highly variable, (1.8-2.5kg/plant) with significant (p=0.05) ratoon yield decline. The posterior loci and crown explants matured late in a staggered pattern over 550-700 DAP. Significant (P<0.05) fruit yield decline of ratoon pineapple ranged between 45- 60%. A research clue for uniform selection of suckers for uniform pineapple orchard fruiting pattern is in view. Keywords: Fruiting, explants, acropetal, pineapple yield. Int’l Journal OF Agric. and Rural Dev. (IJARD) Volume 20 (1); PP. 3011-3015
10Okoli, N. A, Obiefuna, J. C, Alagba, R. A, Emma-Okafor, L. C and Adikuru, N. C. (2017). Effect of seed weight and nursery media on the emergence, growth and survivability of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) seedlings Soursop seeds of 0.3 - 0.5g and 0.6 - 0.8g weights were germinated in five nursery media (topsoil, sawdust, topsoil-poultry manure mix, sawdust-poultry manure mix and standard nursery mixture as control). The 2 x 5 factorial arrangement was laid out in Complete Randomized Design. Polybags were filled with nursery mixtures and arranged on per treatment basis. Ten seeds of soursop were sown in each polybag. Sawdust-poultry manure mixture and sawdust significantly (p ≤ 0.05) accelerated early germination (28 and 31.30 days respectively) while topsoil-poultry mixture delayed germination (47.7 days). Seed weight of 0.6 - 0.8g emerged earliest (28.00 days) while seed weight of 0.3-0.5g emerged late (41.7days). Seed weight of 0.6 - 0.8g had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high percentage emergence (68%) than seed weight of 0.3 - 0.5g (42.70%). Sawdust favoured high percentage emergence (76.7%) than standard nursery mixture (60%). However, standard nursery mixture sustained vigorous seedling growth in terms of plant height and number of leaves at 6 months after sowing (MAS). The seedlings raised from heavy and light weight seeds showed 78.30% and 36.70% survival, respectively at 6 MAS. Seedlings that emerged from heavy seeds showed better growth as compared to light-weight seed. Therefore, for improved soursop seedling production in the nursery, seeds of 0.6-0.8g weight and standard nursery mixtures should be used by farmers to raise soursop seedlings. Keywords: seed weight, nursery media, soursop, seedlings Nigerian Journal of Crop Science Volume 4. No. 2 . PP. 24 – 29.
11Adikuru, N.C., Francis, A.A., Anyanwu, C.P., Onwubiko, N.C and Alagba, R.A (2017) Preliminary evaluation of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc)for growth and reproductive characteristics in Owerri southeastern Nigeria Ten (10) accessions of Bambara groundnut were evaluated in the field to identify those with promising growth characteristics under the humid environment of Owerri in Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The vegetative growth parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, root dry matter and shoot dry matter, while reproductive and yield parameters were days to first flower, days to 50 % flowering , number of fresh pods and weight of fresh pods. Significant differences were observed among the accessions at the vegetative phase but not at the reproductive phase. TVSu-9 with the highest number of fresh pods per plant, TVSu-513 with the highest weight of fresh pods per plant and TVSu-1659 could be further evaluated for stability in the characters before being introduced to farmers in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture Food and Environment (NJAFE) 13 (4):103-107
12Alagba R.A., Obiefuna, J.C., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Onyewuchi, O.P., Ofor, M.O., Okoli, N.A., Adikuru, N.C., Emma-Okafor, L.C and Peter-Onoh, C.A (2017) Depth of planting and mulching: critical agronomic aspects (cultural practices) in late season plantain establishment in rainforest agroecology of southeastern Nigeria The experiment examined the influence of six mulch sources (trash, wood shavings, palm frond, saw dust, black polythene sheet and no mulch (control) and three planting depths (60x60x60 cm, 60x60x80 cm and 60x60x100 cm) on soil macro biological life, soil moisture content and soil temperature during late season plantain establishment. A 3x6 factorial experiment was fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The land was cleared manually. Planting depths were prepared, treated with poultry manure at 10 tha-1. Each planting depth received 4 tha-1 of appropriate mulch except black polythene. After two weeks, plantain sword suckers were planted in December 2010. Core soil samples were collected at each planting depth for pre and post experimental soil physicochemical analyses, soil macro biological life count and percentage soil moisture determination. Soil temperature was monitored at each depth using soil thermometers. All data for plantain were collected and analysed using Genstat. Mean separation was done using the least significant difference (LSD) at 5 % level of probability. Planting depths and mulches significantly (P<0.05) reduced soil temperature during 1 - 4 months after planting. The 60x60x80 cm depths mulched with saw dust recorded lowest soil temperatures at 1 and 2MAP (28.670C and 28.690C). Trash mulched plots of same dimension recorded lowest temperature (29.330C) at 3 MAP respectively. Percentage soil moisture content, soil macro biological life and plantain sucker sprout were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced within 3 months after planting. The 60x60x100 cm plots mulched with black polythene sheets conserved the highest soil moisture (20.12, 21.95 and 24.41 %) at 1-3 MAP respectively. The 60x60x80 cm and 60x60x100 cm planting depths mulched with same mulch types recoded 100 % sucker sprout at 3MAP respectively
13Emma-Okafor L.C., Obiefuna, J.C., Alagba, R.A., Okoli, N.A., Nnebue O.M., Keyagha, E.R. and Ibeawuchi, I.I. (2018) Pineapple Forage Legume Intercropping Systems for Sustainable Pineapple Production in the Tropical Rainforest of Southeastern Nigeria. Weeding and soil impoverishment are the major constraints in pineapple production in the high rainforest agroecology of Southeastern Nigeria. The study exploited the biological aspects of four perennial legumes mucuna, puero, calapo and centro laid out in three populations: 20,000, 10,000 and 5,000 respectively. The control was mulched with wood shavings (5 cm depth). The 4 x 3 factorial experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The experimental plot were 4.0 x 4.0 m with pineapple suckers planted in 50.0 x 50.0 cm double row system with 100cm alleys. Pre and post experimental soil samples were analyzed for soil macro biological populations (bio-index) and physico-chemical properties. Most mucuna seeds (80-89 %) emerged very early (5- 6 DAP) while calapo, puero and centro emerged late (42-60 DAP) with low (62-68%) establishment. Mucuna legume population of 20,000 plant/ha was very aggressive and suppressed both weed and pineapple despite regular mucuna training. The same populations of the other three forage legumes were efficient weed suppressors and yield enhancers. Except for centro which remain alive, the other forage legumes died back during the dry season but regenerated vegetatively and by selfseeding during the rains. Nodulation was high in centro populations. Pineapple intercropped with 20,000 mucuna matured early 508 days after planting and produced the highest individual fruit yield (3.8 kg) followed by those with), mucuna (10,000) centro (20000) and calpo (10,000) plants respectively. The soil physico-chemical properties and biological indicator significantly (p<0.05) increased by 36.0 and 85.0 % respectively over the control. Intercropping pineapple with 10000-20000 mucuna, and centro populations is recommended. Further research on cutting back frequency for high mucuna population, breaking seed dormancy and slow growth rate improvement in centro is advocated. Keyword: Pineapple intercropping, Mucuna ,Mucuna, puero, calapo and centro population FUTO Journals Volume - 4, Issue 2. PP.-1-9
14Emma-okafor, L.C., Okoli, N.A., Alagba, R.A., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Obiefuna, J.C. and Keyagha E.R. (2017) Fruiting patterns of explants from acropetal loci of pineapple growth axis Pineapple with low multiplication ratio (1:3) is vegetatively propagated using available sucker, crown and slips. Rapid multiplication techniques generated massive propagule production. Field report from commercial pineapple growers indicated significant (p=0.05) growth and yield variations among the explants developed on various loci along the pineapple stem. This experiment carried out in 2013 cropping season at Federal University of Technology, Owerri, studied the fruiting of explants (250+ 5g) derived from the anterior, central, posterior loci and crown of mature pineapple stump. Same weight (250+ 5g) sucker was the control. The treatments consisted of four loci explants manured with three poultry manure rates 5, 10, 20 tha-1 respectively. Uniform explants (250+5g) were established in 50.0 x 50.0cm double row system with 100.0cm inter double row alley. The 4x3 factorial experiment was executed in a randomized complete block design of three replicates. The anterior and central loci explants matured uniformly early at 500-520DAP and produced heavy pineapple fruits 3.8kg/plant. Fruit yield of the control was highly variable, (1.8-2.5kg/plant) with significant (p=0.05) ratoon yield decline. The posterior loci and crown explants matured late in a staggered pattern over 550-700 DAP. Significant (P<0.05) fruit yield decline of ratoon pineapple ranged between 45- 60%. A research clue for uniform selection of suckers for uniform pineapple orchard fruiting pattern is in view. Keywords: Fruiting, explants, acropetal, pineapple yield. Int’l Journal OF Agric. and Rural Dev. (IJARD) Volume 20 (1): PP.3011-3015.
15Okoli, N. A, Obiefuna, J. C, Alagba, R. A, Emma-Okafor, L. C and Adikuru, N. C. (2017). Effect of seed weight and nursery media on the emergence, growth and survivability of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) seedlings Soursop seeds of 0.3 - 0.5g and 0.6 - 0.8g weights were germinated in five nursery media (topsoil, sawdust, topsoil-poultry manure mix, sawdust-poultry manure mix and standard nursery mixture as control). The 2 x 5 factorial arrangement was laid out in Complete Randomized Design. Polybags were filled with nursery mixtures and arranged on per treatment basis. Ten seeds of soursop were sown in each polybag. Sawdust-poultry manure mixture and sawdust significantly (p ≤ 0.05) accelerated early germination (28 and 31.30 days respectively) while topsoil-poultry mixture delayed germination (47.7 days). Seed weight of 0.6 - 0.8g emerged earliest (28.00 days) while seed weight of 0.3-0.5g emerged late (41.7days). Seed weight of 0.6 - 0.8g had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high percentage emergence (68%) than seed weight of 0.3 - 0.5g (42.70%). Sawdust favoured high percentage emergence (76.7%) than standard nursery mixture (60%). However, standard nursery mixture sustained vigorous seedling growth in terms of plant height and number of leaves at 6 months after sowing (MAS). The seedlings raised from heavy and light weight seeds showed 78.30% and 36.70% survival, respectively at 6 MAS. Seedlings that emerged from heavy seeds showed better growth as compared to light-weight seed. Therefore, for improved soursop seedling production in the nursery, seeds of 0.6-0.8g weight and standard nursery mixtures should be used by farmers to raise soursop seedlings.Keywords: seed weight, nursery media, soursop, seedlings Nigerian Journal of Crop Science Volume 4. No. 2 . PP. 24 – 29.
16Adikuru, N.C., Francis, A.A., Anyanwu, C.P., Onwubiko, N.C and Alagba, R.A (2017) Preliminary evaluation of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc)for growth and reproductive characteristics in Owerri southeastern Nigeria Ten (10) accessions of Bambara groundnut were evaluated in the field to identify those with promising growth characteristics under the humid environment of Owerri in Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The vegetative growth parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, root dry matter and shoot dry matter, while reproductive and yield parameters were days to first flower, days to 50 % flowering , number of fresh pods and weight of fresh pods. Significant differences were observed among the accessions at the vegetative phase but not at the reproductive phase. TVSu-9 with the highest number of fresh pods per plant, TVSu-513 with the highest weight of fresh pods per plant and TVSu-1659 could be further evaluated for stability in the characters before being introduced to farmers in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture Food and Environment (NJAFE) 13 (4):103-107
17Alagba R.A., Obiefuna, J.C., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Onyewuchi, O.P., Ofor, M.O., Okoli, N.A., Adikuru, N.C., Emma-Okafor, L.C and Peter-Onoh, C.A (2017) Depth of planting and mulching: critical agronomic aspects (cultural practices) in late season plantain establishment in rainforest agroecology of southeastern Nigeria The experiment examined the influence of six mulch sources (trash, wood shavings, palm frond, saw dust, black polythene sheet and no mulch (control) and three planting depths (60x60x60 cm, 60x60x80 cm and 60x60x100 cm) on soil macro biological life, soil moisture content and soil temperature during late season plantain establishment. A 3x6 factorial experiment was fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The land was cleared manually. Planting depths were prepared, treated with poultry manure at 10 tha-1. Each planting depth received 4 tha-1 of appropriate mulch except black polythene. After two weeks, plantain sword suckers were planted in December 2010. Core soil samples were collected at each planting depth for pre and post experimental soil physicochemical analyses, soil macro biological life count and percentage soil moisture determination. Soil temperature was monitored at each depth using soil thermometers. All data for plantain were collected and analysed using Genstat. Mean separation was done using the least significant difference (LSD) at 5 % level of probability. Planting depths and mulches significantly (P<0.05) reduced soil temperature during 1 - 4 months after planting. The 60x60x80 cm depths mulched with saw dust recorded lowest soil temperatures at 1 and 2MAP (28.670C and 28.690C). Trash mulched plots of same dimension recorded lowest temperature (29.330C) at 3 MAP respectively. Percentage soil moisture content, soil macro biological life and plantain sucker sprout were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced within 3 months after planting. The 60x60x100 cm plots mulched with black polythene sheets conserved the highest soil moisture (20.12, 21.95 and 24.41 %) at 1-3 MAP respectively. The 60x60x80 cm and 60x60x100 cm planting depths mulched with same mulch types recoded 100 % sucker sprout at 3MAP respectively
18Emma-Okafor L.C., Obiefuna, J.C., Alagba, R.A. Okoli, N.A., , Nnebue O.M., Keyagha, E.R. and Ibeawuchi, I.I. (2018) Pineapple Forage Legume Intercropping Systems for Sustainable Pineapple Production in the Tropical Rainforest of Southeastern Nigeria. Weeding and soil impoverishment are the major constraints in pineapple production in the high rainforest agroecology of Southeastern Nigeria. The study exploited the biological aspects of four perennial legumes mucuna, puero, calapo and centro laid out in three populations: 20,000, 10,000 and 5,000 respectively. The control was mulched with wood shavings (5 cm depth). The 4 x 3 factorial experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The experimental plot were 4.0 x 4.0 m with pineapple suckers planted in 50.0 x 50.0 cm double row system with 100cm alleys. Pre and post experimental soil samples were analyzed for soil macro biological populations (bio-index) and physico-chemical properties. Most mucuna seeds (80-89 %) emerged very early (5- 6 DAP) while calapo, puero and centro emerged late (42-60 DAP) with low (62-68%) establishment. Mucuna legume population of 20,000 plant/ha was very aggressive and suppressed both weed and pineapple despite regular mucuna training. The same populations of the other three forage legumes were efficient weed suppressors and yield enhancers. Except for centro which remain alive, the other forage legumes died back during the dry season but regenerated vegetatively and by selfseeding during the rains. Nodulation was high in centro populations. Pineapple intercropped with 20,000 mucuna matured early 508 days after planting and produced the highest individual fruit yield (3.8 kg) followed by those with), mucuna (10,000) centro (20000) and calpo (10,000) plants respectively. The soil physico-chemical properties and biological indicator significantly (p<0.05) increased by 36.0 and 85.0 % respectively over the control. Intercropping pineapple with 10000-20000 mucuna, and centro populations is recommended. Further research on cutting back frequency for high mucuna population, breaking seed dormancy and slow growth rate improvement in centro is advocated. Keyword: Pineapple intercropping, Mucuna Mucuna, puero, calapo and centro population. FUTO Journals Volume - 4, Issue 2. PP.-1-9
19Emma-okafor, L.C., Okoli, N.A., Alagba, R.A., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Obiefuna, J.C. and Keyagha E.R. (2017) Fruiting patterns of explants from acropetal loci of pineapple growth axis Pineapple with low multiplication ratio (1:3) is vegetatively propagated using available sucker, crown and slips. Rapid multiplication techniques generated massive propagule production. Field report from commercial pineapple growers indicated significant (p=0.05) growth and yield variations among the explants developed on various loci along the pineapple stem. This experiment carried out in 2013 cropping season at Federal University of Technology, Owerri, studied the fruiting of explants (250+ 5g) derived from the anterior, central, posterior loci and crown of mature pineapple stump. Same weight (250+ 5g) sucker was the control. The treatments consisted of four loci explants manured with three poultry manure rates 5, 10, 20 tha-1 respectively. Uniform explants (250+5g) were established in 50.0 x 50.0cm double row system with 100.0cm inter double row alley. The 4x3 factorial experiment was executed in a randomized complete block design of three replicates. The anterior and central loci explants matured uniformly early at 500-520DAP and produced heavy pineapple fruits 3.8kg/plant. Fruit yield of the control was highly variable, (1.8-2.5kg/plant) with significant (p=0.05) ratoon yield decline. The posterior loci and crown explants matured late in a staggered pattern over 550-700 DAP. Significant (P<0.05) fruit yield decline of ratoon pineapple ranged between 45- 60%. A research clue for uniform selection of suckers for uniform pineapple orchard fruiting pattern is in view. Keywords: Fruiting, explants, acropetal, pineapple yield. Int’l Journal OF Agric. and Rural Dev. (IJARD) Volume 20 (1): PP. 3011-3015
20Okoli, N. A, Obiefuna, J. C, Alagba, R. A, Emma-Okafor, L. C and Adikuru, N. C. (2017). Effect of seed weight and nursery media on the emergence, growth and survivability of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) seedlings Soursop seeds of 0.3 - 0.5g and 0.6 - 0.8g weights were germinated in five nursery media (topsoil, sawdust, topsoil-poultry manure mix, sawdust-poultry manure mix and standard nursery mixture as control). The 2 x 5 factorial arrangement was laid out in Complete Randomized Design. Polybags were filled with nursery mixtures and arranged on per treatment basis. Ten seeds of soursop were sown in each polybag. Sawdust-poultry manure mixture and sawdust significantly (p ≤ 0.05) accelerated early germination (28 and 31.30 days respectively) while topsoil-poultry mixture delayed germination (47.7 days). Seed weight of 0.6 - 0.8g emerged earliest (28.00 days) while seed weight of 0.3-0.5g emerged late (41.7days). Seed weight of 0.6 - 0.8g had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high percentage emergence (68%) than seed weight of 0.3 - 0.5g (42.70%). Sawdust favoured high percentage emergence (76.7%) than standard nursery mixture (60%). However, standard nursery mixture sustained vigorous seedling growth in terms of plant height and number of leaves at 6 months after sowing (MAS). The seedlings raised from heavy and light weight seeds showed 78.30% and 36.70% survival, respectively at 6 MAS. Seedlings that emerged from heavy seeds showed better growth as compared to light-weight seed. Therefore, for improved soursop seedling production in the nursery, seeds of 0.6-0.8g weight and standard nursery mixtures should be used by farmers to raise soursop seedlings. Keywords: seed weight, nursery media, soursop, seedlings Nigerian Journal of Crop Science Volume 4. No. 2 PP. 24 – 29.
21EMMA-OKAFOR, L.C., OKOLI, N.A., ALAGBA, R.A., IBEAWUCHI, I.I., OBIEFUNA, J.C. and KEYAGHA E.R EFFECTS OF THREE RATES OF MUCUNA LIVE-MULCH IN THE PRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN Mulching is a critical cultural practice in plantain production. However, mulch limitations (availability, bulk, transportation, seasonality etc) constrain mulching. This paper exploited the biological aspects (rapid vegetal cover and heavy biomass, soil fertility and biological life enhancement) of mucuna (climber) as a sustainable live mulch in conventional plantain orchard. The experiment was conducted at the university research farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri from May 2013-March 2016. The INT’L JOURNAL OF AGRIC. AND RURAL DEV. SAAT FUTO 2017 Volume 20(1): 3004-3010, 2017
21Emma-okafor, L.C., Okoli, N.A., Alagba, R.A., Ibeawuchi, I.I., Obiefuna, J.C. and Keyagha E.R. (2017) FRUITING PATTERNS OF EXPLANTS FROM ACROPETAL LOCI OF PINEAPPLE GROWTH AXIS Pineapple with low multiplication ratio (1:3) is vegetatively propagated using available sucker, crown and slips. Rapid multiplication techniques generated massive propagule production. Fieldreport from commercial pineapple growers indicated significant (p=0.05) growth and yield variations among the explants developed on various loci along the pineapple stem. This experiment carried out in 2013 cropping season at Federal University of Technology, Owerri, studied the fruiting of explants (250+ 5g) derived from the anterior, central, posterior loci and crown of mature pineapple stump. Same weight (250+ 5g) sucker was the control. The treatments consisted of four loci explantsmanured with three poultry manure rates 5,10, 20 tha-1 respectively. Uniform explants (250+5g) were established in 50.0 x 50.0cm double row system with 100.0cm inter double row alley. The 4x3 factorial experimentwas executed in a randomized complete block design of three replicates. The anterior and central loci explants matured uniformly early at 500-520DAP and produced heavy pineapple fruits 3.8kg/plant. Fruit yield of the control was highly variable, (1.8-2.5kg/plant) with significant (p=0.05)ratoon yield decline. The posterior loci and crown explants matured late in a staggered pattern over 550-700 DAP. Significant (P<0.05) fruit yield decline of ratoon pineapple ranged between 45-60%. A research clue for uniform selection of suckers for uniform pineapple orchard fruiting pattern is in view. INT’L JOURNAL OF AGRIC. AND RURAL DEV. SAAT FUTO 2017 Volume 20(1): 3011-3015, 2017
22EMMA-OKAFOR, L.C., OKOLI, N.A., ALAGBA, R.A., IBEAWUCHI, I.I., OBIEFUNA, J.C. and KEYAGHA E.R 2017. EFFECTS OF THREE RATES OF MUCUNA LIVE-MULCH IN THE PRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN IN OWERRI AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA. Mulching is a critical cultural practice in plantain production. However, mulch limitations (availability, bulk, transportation, seasonality etc) constrain mulching. This paper exploited the biological aspects (rapid vegetal cover and heavy biomass, soil fertility and biological life enhancement) of mucuna (climber) as a sustainable live mulch in conventional plantain orchard. The experiment was conducted at the university research farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri from May 2013-March 2016. The treatments consisted of three mucuna mulch populations (20,000, 10,000 and 5000 ha-1)in plantain/mucuna intercrop manured with three poultry manure rates (0.0, 10.0 and 20 tha-1 respectively. The sole plantain manured with 20 tha-1 poultry manure was the control. The 3 x3 factorial experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design of three replicates in 5.0 x 5.0m plots. Pre- and post-experimental core soil samples were analyzed for soil physio-chemical properties. Plantains mulched and manured with poultry manure rates developed superior growth and yield attributes to the control. These plantains attained 50% vegetal coververy early, (4-6WAP) suckering (4-7 MAP), matured early (10-12 MAP).Plantcrop plantain producedheavy bunches (12-18kg/plant), with an earlier rationing cycle 9-12months than the control. Mucuna populations of 20,000 and 10,000 manured with 10-20 tha-1 poultry manure produced heaviest plant crop plantain bunches (15-18kg/plant) and (12-16kg/plant) ratoon plantains. Soil fertility improvement was superior to those of the unmanured plantain/mucuna (5000) and the control. Plantain/mucuna 20000 ha-1mulch intercrop manured with 10 tha-1 poultry manureisadvocated for stable plantain yields in southeastern Nigeria.Keywords: Plantain, Mucuna live much, Poultrymanure Environment. Keywords: Plantain, Mucuna live much, Poultrymanure Environment.
23Emma-Okafor L.C., Obiefuna, J.C., Alagba, R.A., Okoli, N.A., Nnebue O.M., Keyagha, E.R. and Ibeawuchi, I.I. 2018 Pineapple Forage Legume Intercropping Systems for Sustainable Pineapple Production in the Tropical Rainforest of Southeastern Nigeria. Weeding and soil impoverishment are the major constraints in pineapple production in the high rainforest agroecology of Southeastern Nigeria. The study exploited the biological aspects of four perennial legumes mucuna, puero, calapo and centro laid out in three populations: 20,000, 10,000 and 5,000 respectively. The control was mulched with wood shavings (5 cm depth). The 4 x 3 factorial experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The experimental plot were 4.0 x 4.0 m with pineapple suckers planted in 50.0 x 50.0 cm double row system with 100cm alleys. Pre and post experimental soil samples were analyzed for soil macro biological populations (bio-index) and physico-chemical properties. Most mucuna seeds (80-89 %) emerged very early (5- 6 DAP) while calapo, puero and centro emerged late (42-60 DAP) with low (62-68%) establishment. Mucuna legume population of 20,000 plant/ha was very aggressive and suppressed both weed and pineapple despite regular mucuna training. The same populations of the other three forage legumes were efficient weed suppressors and yield enhancers. Except for centro which remain alive, the other forage legumes died back during the dry season but regenerated vegetatively and by selfseeding during the rains. Nodulation was high in centro populations. Pineapple intercropped with 20,000 mucuna matured early 508 days after planting and produced the highest individual fruit yield (3.8 kg) followed by those with), mucuna (10,000) centro (20000) and calpo (10,000) plants respectively. The soil physico-chemical properties and biological indicator significantly (p<0.05) increased by 36.0 and 85.0 % respectively over the control. Intercropping pineapple with 10000-20000 mucuna, and centro populations is recommended. Further research on cutting back frequency for high mucuna population, breaking seed dormancy and slow growth rate improvement in centro is advocated. Keyword: Pineapple intercropping, Mucuna, puero, calapo and centro population. FUTO JOURNAL SERIES VOLUME-4, ISSUE-2. PP-1-9
24Adikuru, N. C., Francis, A. A., Anyanwu, C. P., Onwubiko, N. C. and Alagba, R. A.(2017) Preliminary Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L.) Verdc) for Growth and Reproductive Characteristics in Owerri South-Eastern Nigeria. Ten (10) accessions of Bambara groundnut were evaluated in the field to identify those with promising growth characteristics under the humid environment of Owerri in South-Eastern Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The vegetative growth parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, root dry matter and shoot dry matter, while reproductive and yield parameters were days to first flower, days to 50 % flowering , number of fresh pods and weight of fresh pods. Significant differences were observed among the accessions at the vegetative phase but not at the reproductive phase. TVSu-9 with the highest number of fresh pods per plant, TVSu-513 with the highest weight of fresh pods per plant and TVSu-1659 could be further evaluated for stability in the characters before being introduced to farmers in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Keywords: Bambara groundnut, evaluation, growth, reproductive characters, yield components Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 13(4):103-107
25Umeh, O.A. and Anyanwu, C.P.(2018) Breeding Genetically Modified Organisms: their benefits, issues and regulations in Nigeria. Genetic modified organisms (GMOs) have become a controversial topic as their benefits for both producers and consumers are associated with potential biomedical risks and environmental hazards. Increasing concerns from Nigerians about GMOs, particularly in the form of genetic modified (GM) foods, are aimed at the short-and long-lasting health problems that may result from this advanced biotechnology. In this paper, we attempt to explore the benefits, potential risks (issues) of GM food and safety measures in the application of modern biotechnology in Nigeria with a view to preventing any adverse effect on human health, animals, plants and environment. Keywords: Genetic modified organisms, benefits, human health, potential problems, biosafety, biotechnology, Nigeria. INT’L JOURNAL OF AGRIC. AND RURAL DEV.(IJARD) SAAT, FUTO. Volume 21(1): 3449-3457, 2018
26Ihejirika, G. O., Onyewuchi, O. P., Ofor, M. O., Ogbedeh, K. O., Ojiako, F. O. and Elesi, C. U. (2017). Evaluation of Intercropping Watermelon and Amaranthus on Some Field Disease and Yield of Groundnut in Owerri, Imo State. Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) is one of the most valuable legume crop, which serve as food and cash crop and mostly exported for their oil. Groundnut oil is used in making margarine, cooking, salad oils and soap, and after oil extraction, a dry cake that remains is a valuable protein-rich livestock feed. Experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons in the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal University of Technology Owerri FUTO. This comprised of four levels of intercropping: Sole groundnut (control); Groundnut/Watermelon; Groundnut/ Amaranthusand Groundnut/Watermelon/Amaranthus respectively. The experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six (6) replications. Intercropping significantly influenced groundnut heights and severity of leafspot and blight at 5 % level of probability in both 2014 and 2015. Groundnut/Water melon/Amaranthus had the highest plant height, 27.37cm; 30.33cm while the least 20.53cm; 23.10cm was recorded on sole groundnut plots in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Sole groundnut recorded the highest blight severity 6.32 %; 9.10 % while Groundnut/Water melon had the lowest 3.86 %; 5.45 % in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Similarly, sole groundnut recorded the highest leaf spot severity 8.17 %; 9.86 % while groundnut/water melon had the lowest 4.05 %; 5.25 % in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Groundnut/Watermelon also recorded the highest seed yield 19.04 tons/ha; 20.15 tons/ha followed by Sole groundnut 15.55 tons/ha; 17.02 tons/ha in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penincillum spp., Cercospora spp., Mucor spp. and Blastomyces spp. were associated with diseased groundnut. Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment [An Official (International) Journal of the Organic Agriculture Project in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria] Volume 5 Number 1 Pages: 56 – 64
27Zakka, U., Kemabonta, K. A., Ojiako, F. O. and Ezeano, U. C. (2017) Diversity of Odonatan in Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria. Damselflies and Dragonflies are good biological indicators especially in fresh water ecosystems because they are very responsive to habitat and landscape degradation. A study to determine their species richness and abundance was conducted in Choba Rivers State, Nigeria. Four sampling sites were assessed and sampling with a sweep net was carried out in the morning (between 08.00 and 11.00 hrs.) and in the evening (between 16.00 and 18.00 hrs). Number of odonates collected was subjected to non-parametric statistics. A total of 161 odonates were collected belonging to 7 genera in one family, Libellulidae. Nine species were recorded with Macrodiplax corn as the most abundant species found in all the sites sampled, while Palpoleura impartita was the species with the least record. Shannon Weiner index showed that species diversity was highest at Olobo Premier College while Simpson richness, evenness and Margalef species richness index were highest at Choba River. The vegetation of the study area was either sparse or dense vegetation with shallow water bodies and anthropogenic activities included fishing and trading. Nigerian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences [Faculty of Science, Benue State University Volume 9 Number 2 Pages: 97- 104.
28Ojiako, F. O., Echerobia C. O. and Okudoh, S. U. (2018) Insecticidal Activity of Piper guineense Schumacher Extract on some Field Insect Pests of Cucumber (Cucumissativus Linnaeus) in Imo State, Nigeria. This study compared the insecticidal efficacy of Piper guineense seed extract relative to a synthetic insecticide (cypermethrin 10 EC) in the control of some field insect pests of cucumber. The experiment consisted of 7 treatments replicated 3 times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Cypermethrin 10 EC was tested at 0, 0.50, 1.0 and1.50 ml/100 ml of water while P. guineense seeds, air dried under shade and crushed into powdery form, were weighed out at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g. The weighed samples were mixed with 100 ml of water, respectively, before spraying. Insecticides application and pest sampling were carried out at 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP). Leaf damage and yield assessment parameters (number of fruits per plot and fresh weight of fruits from each plot) were assessed from 4 to 10 WAP. Major arthropod pests identified were adult and larva of Epilachna chrysomelina Mulsant and Podagrica spp. Insecticide type had significant effect on the population of sampled pests. The plots sprayed with P. guineense extract had higher number of leaves (13.62 leaves) when compared with plots sprayed with cypermethrin (11.99 leaves) (mean of the three rates), respectively. Though P. guineense extract at the applied rates recorded a higher number of damaged leaves (11.43) than the plots sprayed with cypermethrin (8.90), they had less damaged leaves than the control (12.16). Despite having more damaged leaves, plots treated with P. guineense extract had the same statistical yield (in number and fresh weight of cucumber fruits harvested) with those sprayed with cypermethrin (P = .05). Piper guineense extract compared favourably with cypermethrin in controlling the insect pests of cucumber and could serve as alternative to synthetic pesticides in the management of these pests. FUTO Journal Series (FUTOJNLS) FUTO Volume 4,Number 1.Pages: 45 – 66.
29Umeh, O.A., and Ojiako, F.O. (2018). Limitations of Cucumber (Cucumissativus L.) Production for Nutrition Security in Southeast Nigeria. Vegetables are important components of Nigeria’s diet that a traditional meal without it is assumed to be incomplete. Recently in Nigeria, the demand of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) is on the increase due to the continued awareness of the overwhelming importance of cucumber’s health benefits along with skin care. But its supply is low because of a number of factors that militate against the production of the crop. Production of cucumber in southeast Nigeria is most seriously constrained by scarcity of planting seeds, lack of capital, climatic factors, plant pests and diseases, high fruit perishability and farmers’ inexperience. Addressing these enormous problems encumbering the production of cucumber in this zone will further help strengthen the national vegetable reserve base and alleviate the devastating effects of the global food crisis, particularly in Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development [SAAT, FUTO] Volume 21 Number 1Pages: 3437 – 3443.
30Ojiako, F. O.,Ibe, A. E., Ogu, E. C. and Okonkwo, C. C. (2018) Effect of Varieties and Mulch Types on Foliar Insect Pests of Okra [Abelmoschusesculentus L. (Moench)] in a Humid Tropical Environment. The effect of varieties and mulch types were evaluated on some vegetative insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. A 3 x 5 factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used to lay out the trial. Three varieties of okra (NHAe47-4, V35 and Lady’s finger) and five mulch types [dry palm fronds, dry grass, black polyethylene, groundnut (live mulch) and unmulch (as control)] were used as treatments. Ten tonnes per hectare (10 t ha-1) of dry grass and dry palm fronds, respectively, were applied before planting. The black polyethylene mulch was applied to fit the 1 m x 3 m plot size. Groundnut seeds were planted between the okra plants, at a spacing of 60 cm x 25 cm, as live mulch. A 60 cm x 45 cm spacing was used to sow the okra seeds. Data collected were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and number of damaged leaves. At different developmental phases of the crop, insect pests were sampled. Results indicated mulch application had significant effect on insect pest leaf damage whereas no significant differences existed between the varieties used. Black polyethylene mulch treated plants had the least insect pests attack and consequently, the lowest number of damaged leaves. The flea beetle Podagrica spp., cotton leaf roller Notarcha derogata, cotton strainer Dysdercus spp., whitefly Bemisia tabaci and Nigerian grasshopper Oedaleus nigeriensis were identified as the major vegetative insect pests of okra. It may be concluded that okra cultivated with plastic mulch reduced insect pests and produced healthier plants. Agrosearch [Faculty of Agriculture,UNILORIN] Volume 18,Number 2,Pages: 38-58
31Ojiako, F. O.,Adesiyun, A. A., Ihejirika, G. O. and Dialoke, S. A.(2018). Efficacy of Piper guineense SCHUMACHER Seed Powder in the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus FABRICIUS 1775 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) and on the Nutritional and Organoleptic Characteristics of Stored Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP. Brown pepper (Piper guineense) seed powder, used for culinary and medicinal purposes, was evaluated in the laboratory with a conventional storage chemical, actellic 2% dust (Pirimiphos-methyl), as standard, to protect stored cowpea against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus. Four rates of the seed powder were used (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/100 g seed with a control, 0.0 g) while actellic dust was applied at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 g/100 g seed and 0.0 g/100 g seed as control. Data on percentage mortality, oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage were collected over a six-month period. Weevil perforation indexes (WPI) were estimated with the seed damage data. All data were analysed for variance at P<0.05. Actellic dust at the lowest dose inflicted adult mortality (90 - 100%) in the first 48 h after treatment and prevented oviposition (95 - 100%) in the first five months of storage compared to the control. The highest rate of Piper guineense application caused mortality of up to 90.0% in 48 h, reduced oviposition (70 - 80%), decreased adult emergence (15.90 to 28.40 insects) as against the control (104.7 - 272.7 insects) and reduced seed damage by 80 % with a WPI of between 33.3 and 10.0 %. Proximate analysis and germination tests indicated that the treatment materials increased the moisture and crude fibre content, decreased crude protein content but had no significant effect on the viability of stored seeds. Organoleptic tests demonstrated that treatment materials had no significant negative effect on taste, odour, texture, appearance and overall acceptability of cooked cowpea seeds after six months of storage. It can be safely concluded that the powdered form of P. guineense seed at the highest doses (5.0 and 10.0 g) gave significant protection of cowpea seeds against the cowpea bruchid, which compared favourably with actellic dust when applied topically. Polish Journal of Entomology (Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne) Poland. [Journal of the Polish Entomological Society and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland] Volume 87,Issue 2,Pages: 119-140
32Nnebue, O.M., Ogoke, I.J., Ihejirika, G.O., Adikuru, N.C. and Okoli, N.H. Yield performance of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) as affected by plant density and inorganic fertilizer in Owerri, Nigeria. Yield performance in plants is critical in food security and to determine the appropriate population density for the optimum production of roselle, plant population density (4plants/m2, 2.7plants/m2 and 1.8plants/m2) and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer (0 kg/ha, 250 kg/ha and 500 kg/ha) were evaluated and the treatment arrangement was a 3 x 3 factorial fitted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were taken on different agronomic and yield parameters. Results show no significant (p≤0.05) differences in plant height, number of leaves and leaf area/plant. However, number of flower buds and pod weight per plant displayed differences with respect to the treatments. Population density of 4plants/m2 produced the highest number of flower buds of 9.22 and pod weight of 6.67g/plant while 1.8plants/m2 produced the lowest number of flower buds of 5.19 and pod weight of 3.22g/plant. The 250 kg/ha NPK 20:10:10 gave the highest number of flower buds of 9.94 and fruit weight of 7.44 g/plant while the least was recorded for the control. Considering the relationship between the agronomic and yield parameters measured in this study, a population density of 4 plants/m2 and 250 kg/ha NPK 20:10:10 are recommended for further studies. Also further studies on population densities is recommended to ascertain the relationship between number of pods/plant and actual weight of seeds. Keywords: Yield, Roselle, Plant Density, Nitrogen fertilizer International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 21 (1): 3306-3312, 2018
33Dialoke, S. A., Emosairue, S.O., Nwosu, L.C., Ogbedeh, K.O., Echerobia, C.O., Peter-Onoh, C., Nnebue, O.M. and Uba, C.P. Effects of rates and application frequency of formulated neem seed oil on population of Riptortus dentipes Fab. on pigeon pea flowers and yield in, Owerri, southeastern, Nigeria The alternative control of population of Riptortus dentipes at flowering phase of short duration pigeonpea (ICPL 84023) was studied at the Teaching and Research Farm, Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State beginning from May 2009 and May 2010 planting seasons. In this research study, the population of R. dentipes on pigeonpea flowers and yield of pigeonpea were monitored under control with formulated neem seed oil (F-NSO) and synthetic pyrethroid (SPY) (Cypermethrin). The experiment was laid out in 5 x 3 factorial experiment comprising three rates of neem seed oil, 4.2 ℓ ha-1, 8.4 ℓ ha-1, 12.6 ℓ ha-1 and untreated control (0 ℓ ha-1), synthetic pyrethroid (Cypermethrin) 1.5 ℓ ha-1 as checks and three intervals of application: once a week, once in two weeks, and once in three weeks. Results show that application of F-NSO at the highest dosage of 6ml per litre of water (12.6 ℓ ha-1) and at four regime spraying intervals of once a week significantly (p<0.05) reduced the population of R. dentipes on the flowers and increased the pigeonpea yields (kg ha-1) and yield components when compared with the untreated pigeonpea plots, but was inferior compared with synthetic pyrethroid treated plots. With respect to yield and yield components F-NSO at high dose of 6ml per litre gave the highest pod yield of 705.00 kg ha-1, in 2009; 1004.00 kg ha-1 in 2010 and seed yield of 517.00kg ha-1, in 2009 ; 838.00 kg ha-1 in 2010 compared with lower doses of the oil and the unprotected plots with pod yield 354.00 kg ha-1 in 2009; 454.00 kg ha-1 in 2010 and seed yields of 304.00 kg in 2009; 361.00 kg ha-1 in 2010. As well 100 pod weight (g), 100 seed weight (g), pods per plant, seeds per plant and number of seeds per pod were also higher compared with control. These yields were inferior to the pod yields of 874 .00kg ha-1 in 2009; 1234.00kg ha-1 in 2010 and seed yields of 820.00 kg ha-1 in 2009; 944.00 kg ha-1 in 2010 obtained when synthetic pyrethroid was applied. To preserve the reproductive phase from pests and enhance productivity of pigeonpea, application of high dose of 12.6 ℓ ha-1 of the F-NSO at weekly interval therefore becomes imperative. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment 13 (4):16-21
34Dialoke, S.A.Ogbedeh, K.O .Nwokeji, E.M.Chigbundu, I.N..Nnebue, O.M. Cookey, C.O. Impact of Plant Density and planting date on the population of major pod sucking bugs in relation to damage and yield improved pegeonpea cultivar in Owerri Rainforest zone, Nigeria Field study was undertaken to determine the population of three major pod sucking bugs namely Riptortus dentipes Fab. (Hemiptera: coreidae), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stall (Hemiptera: coreidae), Anoplocnemis curvipes Fab (Hemiptera: coreidae) and their effect on damage, yield (kg ha-1) and yield components under varying plant densities and planting dates. The experiment was carried out at the Postgraduate Teaching and Research Farm, Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State. Experiment was laid out in a 3 x 4 factorial and treatments comprised of four plant density of 190,474 plants ha-1, 125,000 plants ha-1, 80,000 plants ha-1, 55,556 plants ha-1 and three planting dates, April (early season), July (Midseason), and October (late season), 2009 and 2010. The results, show that there was significant (p<0.05) population of the pod sucking bugs on pigeonpea flowers and pods at high plant density and low on plants at low plant density. There was significant (p<0.05) population of C. tomentosicollis and A. curvipes in October while April and July planting seasons showed absence of C. tomentosicollis and A. curvipes The population of R. dentipes occurred throughout the season with peak population in April which decreased as planting was delayed till October. Also plants at high density recorded high pod and seed damage resulting in low values of seed yield (147.90 kg ha-1) in 2009, (168.80 kg ha-1) in 2010 when compared with pigeonpea planted at low density which had low pod and seed damage with high seed yield of 223.33 kg ha-1 in 2009, and 268.83 kg ha-1 in 2010. Also yield components like 100 pod/seed weight (g), pod/seed yield (g) per plant, number of seeds per pod were low on plants at high density, but high on plants at low density. July planting season recorded the lowest pest loads, pods/seed damage, with resultant high pod/seed yield and yield components compared with April and October planting seasons. Therefore, for high seed yield with minimal damage by pod sucking bugs, planting the early maturing pigeonpea in July at low density should be incorporated into farming systems in this zone as integrated Pest Management alternative. Journal of Experimental Agriculture Int’l 20(1) 1-20
35Cookey, C.O.,Agu, C.M. Nwufo, M.I., Ofor, M.O.,Ogwudire, V.E. Root-gall nematode desease of cowpea as affected by different intrcrop mixtures Cowpea variety:, ’Sampea 6’, a variety that is highly susceptible to root-gall nematode disease was variously intercropped with Zea mays, Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus spp and Capsicum annum at plant populations, 55,555; 20,000; 10,000; 17,000 and 222,222/ha respectively. This was to determine the crop-mixture for effective control of root-gall nematode disease on the susceptible cowpea variety. The trial was laid out in randomized complete block design experiment with four replications in a Nigerian Ultisol endemic with root-gall nematode; Meloidogyne incognita. Results showed that cowpea roots assessed for galling responses at 90 days after planting had significantly (p = 0.05) lower galls when intercropped with Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus spp and Capsicum annum. This contrasted the increased root-gall severity on cowpea associated with Zea mays incorporated in the crop-mix. Cowpea grain yield and other yield attributes also inversely correlated with galling severity. FUTO Journal Series Vol. 4, (1) 36-44
36Ihejirika, G.O., Onyewuchi, O.P., Ofor, M.O., Ogbedeh, K.O., Ojiako, F.O. and Elesi, C.U., (2017) Evaluation of intercropping non-leguminous crops on some field disease development and yield of groundnut in Owerri, Imo State Groundnut or peanut (Arachishypogeae L.) is one of the most valuable legume crop, which serve as food and cash crop and mostly exported for their oil. Groundnut oil is used in making margarine, cooking, salad oils and soap, and after oil extraction, a dry cake that remains is a valuable protein-rich livestock feed. Experiments wereconducted in 2014 and 2015, cropping seasons in the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal University of Technology, Owerri FUTO. This comprised of four levels of intercropping: Sole groundnut (control);Groundnut/Watermelon; Groundnut/Amaranthus and Groundnut/Watermelon/Amaranthus respectively. The experiments were laid-out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six (6) replications. Intercropping significantly influenced groundnut heights and severity of leaf spot and blight at 5% level of probability in both 2014 and 2015. Groundnut/Water melon/Amaranthus had the highest plant height, 27.37cm; 30.33cm while the least 20.53cm; 23.10cm was recorded on sole groundnut plots in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Sole groundnut recorded the highest blight severity 6.32%; 9.10% while Groundnut/Water melon had the lowest 3.86%; 5.45% in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Similarly, sole groundnut recorded the highest leaf spot severity 8.17%; 9.86% while groundnut/water melon had the lowest 4.05%; 5.25% in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Groundnut/Watermelon also recorded the highest seed yield 19.04tons/ha; 20.15tons/ha followed by Sole groundnut 15.55tons/ha; 17.02tons/ha in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Aspergillus spp.;Fusariumspp.;Penincillumspp.; Cercospora spp.; Mucor spp. and Blastomycesspp.were associated with diseased groundnut. Keywords: Evaluation, leguminous, non-leguminous, diseases, groundnut. Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment Vol.5, No. 1, 56-64.

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