Publications and Abstract of Research

Environmental Management Department (2017-2018)

List of 2017-2018 Publications and Abstract of Research from Environmental Management Department

School of Environmental Science

S/NAuthor's Name & year of publicationTitle of workAbstractJournal NameJournal Vol./Number
10Anyanwu Jonathan C., Ejiogu, N., Amaku, G.E., Ugwu, O.J., Onwuagba, C. G., and Egwuawa, O.I. Effect of Anthropogenic Activities on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Awka South L.G.A. Anambra State, Nigeria The study evaluated the effect of anthropogenic activities on the Physico-chemical properties of soils of Awka South, LGA, Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Triplicate soil samples were collected from different soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm) in four land-use types: sand mining, playground, arable land and forest land of Agu Awka, Amawbia, Okpuno and Ifite respectively. Physico-chemical properties of the soils were analyzed using standard methods. Analysis of variance and correlation analysis were performed using Genstat Statistical Package Version 18. Results showed that soil properties were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the different anthropogenic activities and were not uniformly distributed down the depths. Soils were dominated by loamy sand and were moderately compacted with low moisture content. The soils were generally acidic (4.47-.5.83) irrespective of depth and land use.Organic carbon (0.263-0667 %) and total nitrogen (0.028-0.069%) were low and were seriously reduced by human activities. Available phosphorus (6.12-8.91 ppm) was seriously increased in sand mining compared to other land use types, moreover, sand mining activities had impacts on the levels of Ca (5.32-1.99 cmolkg-1) and Na (0.020-0.32 cmolkg-1). Total exchangeable acidity was reduced in all the land use types apart from the playground where there was a slight increase (1.57-1.70 cmolkg-1). Total exchangeable bases and ECEC followed decreasing pattern of forest > arable land > sand mining > playground. Soil pH had a significantly positive association with OC, TN, Ca, Mg, TEB, EEC,%BS, TP and MC. To improve the fertility status of these soils especially arable land, the use of organic and/or inorganic fertilizer is required. The regulation of mining activities in the study area was also recommended to protect the soil from further degradation. Earth Science (Elixir International Journal) 126 (2019) 52549-52556
11P. N. Okeke and C. S. Charles June 2018 Geotechnical Characterization of Gully Erosion Impacted Soils in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Geotechnical characterization of gully erosion affected soils in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria was carried out. Soil samples were collected from two locations impacted by gully erosion at varying depths of 0-15cm, 15-30cm and 30cm using a soil auger. The same depths were maintained in sampling the non-gully impacted area (control). Geotechnical properties such as permeability, bulk and dry densities, Atterberg limits, compaction, shear strength and grain size were determined using standard procedures prescribed by ASTM D3418-05. The results showed that all the samples were non-plastic. Permeability values ranged from 4.0x10-2 to 3.8x10-3cm/sin the gully affected areas, and from 2.5x10-2 to 1.0x10-3cm/sec in the control location. Similarly, the bulk density of the Eroded areas were from 1.76 to 1.81g/cm3 while the control was from 1.48 to 1.62g/cm3. The shear strength at a constant maximum normal stress of 177.8KN/m2 varied from 78.5 to 86.9 KN/m2 at the gullied areas, while the control values were from 87.9 to 89.9 KN/m2. The values of all the parameters increased with depth. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review Vol. 6 (7)
12M. C. Iwuji, C. P. Iheanyichukwu, J. D. Njoku, F. I. Okpiliya, S. O. Anyanwu, G. T. Amangabara and K. O. E. Ukaegbu Assessment of Land Use Changes and Impacts of Dam Construction on the Mbaa River, Ikeduru, Nigeria This research was conducted in order to ascertain the impact of the earth dam on the physical environment of Mbaa River using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. The Specific objective was to use multi-temporal images to assess land use and land cover changes as well as determine the extent of land degradation around the watershed as a result of the dam. Landsat 7 ETM+ of 2000 of path 188 and row 56 and the Nigeria Sat-X image of 2nd December 2011 were classified to identify the changes in the physical features of the watershed. The study revealed variations in the land cover of the study area with land degradation and erosion in both the upstream and downstream area and submergence of farmlands in the upstream. The result from the watershed delineation revealed that the shorelines of the upstream increased to an approximate length of 109 m while the downstream shrank to 18 m. There was about 8.05% reduction between the years 2000-2011 in the total area covered by the water body in the area. Urgent action needs to be taken to reclaim degraded land especially downstream of the dam through re-afforestation. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 13(1): 1-10, 2017
13Akhionbare, S.M.O., Enwerem, M.L., Umunnakwe, J.E., Anyanwu, Jonathan C. Heavy Metal Uptake By Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Grown on Solid Waste Contaminated Soil in Nekede, Imo State The research was carried out to assess the level of some trace metals in cucumber planted on contaminated soil in Nekede, Owerri. The mean concentrations of Pb, As, Ni, Hg and Fe in the fruits of the cucumber plant from the topsoil were 0.256, 78.82, 98.84, 3.49, and 96.63mg/kg, respectively while the values for the subsoil were 1.24, 49.77, 96.32, 2.58 and 162.66 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentration of Pb, As, Ni, Hg and Fe in the leaf of the cucumber plant from the topsoil were 1.24, 49.77, 96.32, 2.58, 162.66 mg/kg respectively while the mean concentration for the subsoil were 9.51, 0.00, 97.31, 0.00, 2.59 and 95.44mg/kg respectively. The mean values of Pb, As, Ni, Hg and Fe in the leaf for the control (topsoil) were 6.37, 2.22, 1.91, 2.99, 43.68 mg/kg respectively while the mean values for the control (subsoil) were 11.00, 1.34, 5.53, 3.01, 61.74 mg/kg respectively. The result indicated clear differences in heavy metal (Pb, As, Ni, Hg, and Fe) bioaccumulation among the various parts of the cucumber plant from the topsoil and subsoil. Except for Hg and Fe, the heavy metal concentrations in all the investigated cucumber fruits and leaves exceeded regulatory limits set by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and other international standards. Soil–plant transfer factors indicated a low accumulation of the heavy metals into the fruits and leaves of the cucumber, except for Ni in both the fruit and leaf. The pH values of the topsoil samples ranged from 4.60 to 6.20. The range of As, Hg, Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb for the topsoil samples were 0.114 - 1.441, 0.368 – 0.448, 8.483 – 9.826, 2.567 – 13.776, 0.00 – 0.131, 10.885 – 14.479, 0.375 – 18.915, 0.008 – 0.031, 0.00 – 0.00, 0.897 – 4.363 and 4.60 – 6.20 mg/kg respectively. The pH values of samples from the subsoil ranged from 4.40 to 4.80 with a mean value of 4.6. The range of As, Hg, Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb for samples collected from the subsoil were 0.642 – 1.902, 0.322 – 0.897, 9.572 – 18.125, 0.00 – 10.430, 0.00 – 0.082, 10.849 -20.270, 0.199 – 22.340, 0.012 – 0.402, 0.00 -0.254 and 1.189 – 36.073mg/kg respectively. The result of the one-way analysis of variance revealed that there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the mean level of heavy metals in the fruits and leaves of cucumber from the topsoil and subsoil obtained from both the polluted and control sites. The Tukey post hoc test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the heavy metal accumulation in the cucumber of the topsoil and subsoil from the polluted and control sites. The BAFs of all the heavy metals were less than 1.0, except for Fe and Ni. Additionally, the BAFs of Fe, Ni and As were higher than the BAFs of Pb and Hg. The study recommended the articulation of strategies by the government to enforce proper management and disposal of solid waste through strict and dedicated implementation of waste management policies. Copyright © 2019, Akhionbare et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. International Journal of Information Research and Review (IJIRR) Vol. 06, Issue, 05
14M. C. Iwuji1, C. P. Ibe, J. D. Njoku, S. O. Anyanwu, G. T. Amangabara,N. Ac-Chukwuocha and K. O. E. Ukaegbu Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics in Orlu, Nigeria This research set out to ascertain the land use and land cover changes that have taken place in Orlu L.G.A from 1986 to 2013. Two fundamental tools applied were GIS and remote sensing which were used for the assessment of LULC. Remote sensing provided multi-temporal images, while GIS was used to analyze the data from a geographic perspective. Field observation was also carried out in the area in order to assess the level of urbanization as well as the trend of development. The result of this analysis provided four major classifications of land use and land cover which include; bare-soil, built-up, water body and vegetation. The built-up area was observed to have increased rapidly between 2000 and 2013 with a value of 46.207% while there was a drastic decrease in bare soil and water bodies as a result of the trend in the development of this area within this period. Vegetation cover reduced from 58.03% in 1986 to about 52.09% in 2013. It is evident that Orlu is developing rapidly with respect to land-use change as there has been a rapid increase in socio-economic activities of the population. Consequently, there is an increase in the runoff level in the area as a result of various construction works going on in the area. This has resulted in a high rate of siltation in the water bodies and their 0consequent shrinkage. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology 4(1): 1-10, 2017
15G. T. Amangabara, J. D. Njoku & M. C. Iwuji People’s Perception of Soil Erosion And Its Impact in Imo State, Nigeria This study constitutes a critical measure of comprehension among the local residents of various communities on how they view the causes and impacts of soil erosion; this is in view to designing a sustainable control measure against erosion. On the basis of gully erosion density determined from satellite imagery, thirty communities were selected from the twenty-seven Local Government Area of Imo State where One thousand, five hundred (1,500) semi-structured (closed-ended) questionnaire made up of fourteen (14) questions addressing the issue of soil erosion, its impact and remedial measures were randomly administered (50 copies in each Community). The observations were ranked and simple percentage/descriptive statistical tools were deployed to analyze the data so generated. The findings show that the majority (79.9%) of respondents have lived in the area for more than 30 years. Traders and farmers constitute the highest respondents. Respondents perceived loss of land, loss of vegetation, water pollution, stream sedimentation, declining soil quality and landslides as major environmental impacts. While erosion control levy, loss of land for farming, undermining of transport routes/bridges were considered as socio-economic impacts. They attribute soil erosion (gully) to civil works (road construction) and soil quality and slope as major factors of erosion The result further showed that the mean (4.0) for environmental impacts across the study area is greater than the criteria mean (3.5) which makes it very significant. It was also observed that communities in the northern part of the State consider soil erosion as an environmental challenge while communities from the Southern and Central part of the State consider it as socio-economic. International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences (IMPACT: IJRANSS) Vol. 5, Issue 12, Dec 2017, 77-88
16Amangabara, G. T., Njoku, J. D., Iwuji, M.C. and Nlemedim, V. C. Assessment of the Suitability of Some Sites for Aquaculture Development in the Onitsha Sub-Basin, Anambra State, Nigeria Using GIS Methods Due to demand for fish products which has doubled since the 1950s following rising population and declining wild catch from open water and lagoons, fish farming now offers an effective alternative to generating animal protein and income from dwindling land spaces. However, to embark on a fish farming venture, a suitable site need to be identified to ensure gain and reduce environmental pollution. The correct choice of site in any aquatic farming operation is of vitally important since it can greatly influence economic viability by determining capital outlay, and by affecting running costs, rates of productions and mortality factors as well environmental pollution. This study, therefore, describes the assessment of the suitability of some sites for aquaculture development in the Onitsha sub-basin, Anambra State, Nigeria using GIS methods. Onitsha was selected for this study being strategically located and drained by several rivers including the River Niger. The dataset used for the study are 2002 Landsat image, 2007 ikonos image, water quality variables and settlements point data. The software used is ArcGIS 10.1 and Microsoft Enterprise 2010. Various thematic layers (e.g. topography, geology) were prepared for categorising suitable aquaculture sites based on four sub-models viz., land-use/landcover, geology/soil quality, water quality and infrastructure facilities. The site suitability map for aquaculture development was prepared and the result showed that Onitsha and Onicha towns, both fifth order stream communities are not suitable for fish farming while Onono, Ukwu Abwa, Nkwelle, Ani and the floodplains of Onitsha are considered the most suitable for commercial fish aquaculture and it is recommended that investors site their fish farms in these areas. FUTO Journal Series (FUTOJNLS) Vol. 3, Issue-1, pp- 114 – 130
17K. O. E. Ukaegbu, M. C. Iwuji, C. C. Uche, I. E. Osumgborogwu and G. T. Amangabara Spatial Assessment of Temperature and Land Cover Change as Climate Change Monitoring Strategies in Owerri, Nigeria Climate change is one of the alarming global environmental changes likely to have deleterious effects on natural, social, cultural and human systems. The risks associated with it call for a broad spectrum of policy responses and strategies at local, regional, national and global levels. This study seeks to explore the nexus between geospatial techniques in assessing climate change and sustainable development, discussing evidenced effects of climate change with considerations into sustainable development efforts in Owerri, Nigeria. This study uses Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellite data of 1986, 2000 and 2016 respectively to evaluate land cover and temperature variation as a climatic change in the study area over three decades. The results from the adopted geospatial analysis revealed that climate change resulted from development activities in urban cities, and is evidently affecting every sector of human activities and limiting life expectancy, thus working against sustainable development. This confirms that changes in impervious surfaces significantly produce the corresponding effect in increasing urban heat in the city. This study recommended that adequate land use planning be enforced by adopting green city planning techniques. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 11(1): 1-9, 2017
18M. C. Iwuji, O. L. Iroh, J. D. Njoku, S. O. Anyanwu, G. T. Amangabara and K. O. E. Ukaegbu Vulnerability Assessment of Soil Erosion Based on Topography and Vegetation Cover in a Developing City of Orlu L.G.A, South-East Nigeria The problem of erosion has over time been exacerbated by the development and constructions of buildings, roads, poor drainage system and other urban characters on areas transiting from rural to urban setting. This study set out to evaluate the vulnerability of Orlu L.G.A., Nigeria, to erosion in the face of increased anthropogenic activities using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and soil characteristics. Soil samples were collected and analysed for geotechnical/physical properties, the slope was also measured. Satellite images were analyzed for changes in land use and land cover, while GPS coordinates of different points in the area were obtained and interpolated into a map to create a digital elevation model (DEM). With the aid of the GIS, slope pattern as established. Urbanization has triggered some erosion problems in the study area. Gully formation was seen to have been induced mainly by poorly designed construction works. The study also established the degree and length of the slope, the soil and inherent geologic formations of the study area are the primary factors of the gully erosion in the study area. From the GIS generated images, the northern and western section of the study area are prone to erosion hazards and this was confirmed by a field reconnaissance survey. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology 4(4): 1-10, 2017
19Chris O. Nwoko The Contributions of Mycorrhizas in the Mineralization of Organic Contaminants This chapter aimed to (a) overview organic pollutants and their sources, (b) introduce mycorrhizas and highlight their relationship with plants and role in the degradation of organics providing some experimental evidence, (c) discuss interaction of mycorrhizas with other soil microbes, and (d) point resultant effect of degradation on soil health. Springer International Publishing Volume 1 (eBook chapter ) 2017
20Chris O Nwoko, R. F Njoku-Tony, P. U Nlemedim, U. A. Ihugba Assessment of the Distribution Pattern of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons Around Nekede Auto-mechanic Village, Imo State, Nigeria Auto mechanic activity in the recent time has significantly contributed to environmental degradation partly due to poor waste management practices and weak enforcement in ensuring operators are located in designated sites. This study, therefore, investigated the distribution pattern of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants around Nekede auto mechanic village, Owerri. Soil samples (0-30cm) were collected at three separate points. Sediment samples were also collected from two points along the Otamiri River representing sediments (RS) 1 and 2 and a control sample where no mechanic activity existed. Physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods and Gas Chromatographic system equipped with a single detector (Flame Ionization Detector) — GC-FID for PAHs. The results obtained showed that out of the sixteen US-EPA targets PAHs (EPA-16) analysed, only eight were detected in varying concentrations. Total PAH concentrations in the samples were in the order of dibenzo {ah} anthracene (29.111mg/kg) > indeno {1, 2, 3-cd} pyrene (20.178mg/kg) > anthracene (10.717mg/kg) > naphthalene (8.340mg/kg) > 1, 2-benzoanthracene (4.124mg/kg) > acenaphthene (2.784mg/kg) > benzo {ghi} perylene (2.324mg/kg) > fluorene (1.421mg/kg). The concentration of total PAH components detected in the samples ranged from 2.564mg/kg to 21.841mg/kg in the study site compared to that of the control site where no PAH component was detected. The results, therefore, call for public concerns as PAH levels exceeded the maximum permissible limits set by some regulatory bodies. Public health education and regulation on management of wastes in the auto-mechanic workshops are recommended for environmental sustainability. Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering Vol .2 no. 3, 2017
21Uloma A. I, C. O. Nwoko*, F. R. Tony-Njoku, A. A. Ojiaku, L. Izunobi Heavy Metal Determination and Health Risk Assessment of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr.) Singer, Collected from Selected Markets in Imo State. NIGERIA Oyster mushroom Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr.)(Sing), Ǫsu, is a common mushroom which is used as food or medicine, more commonly as a soup thickener. This study investigated the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu) in wild samples of Pleurotus tuberregium sclerotia consumed within Imo state. The oyster mushrooms purchased from different markets from Imo State were mineralized with H2SO4 and HNO3 and analyzed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Thermo Scientific model. The mean concentrations of Pb: 0.13 mg/kg (ranged 0.04±0.005mg/kg to 0.35±0.005mg/kg), Zn: 1.26mg/kg (ranged from 0.03 ± 0.007 mg/kg to 3.25 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Ni and Cu were 0.0001mg/kg, 0.164mg/kg, respectively. These results were compared with the data from literature and levels set by regulatory authorities, with the conclusion that the consumption of oyster mushroom sclerotium does not pose a toxicological risk. The Zn, Pb, Ni and Cu content of the studied products would contribute to only about 7.4%, 30.3%, 0.001% and 1.91%, respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Zn, Pb, Ni and Cu. The Cu and Zn contents would contribute to the nutritional intake of the metal in the general population. It is recommended that the outer layers of the sclerotia be properly scraped and washed before use to reduce air-borne metal contamination. American Journal of Environmental Protection Vol. 6, No. 1,2018
22C. O. Nwoko, Chinwe J. N, C. E. Ihejirika, C. Ngumah, A. A. Ojiaku1, I. E Mbuka-Nwosu1 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in Selected Heavy metal Contaminated Soils in Owerri, Nigeria An investigation was carried out on the species diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in selected heavy metal contaminated soils within Owerri metropolis. Soils (0-20cm) were collected from 8 different locations viz (1) high auto mechanic activity area. (2) Medium auto mechanic activity area. (3) Low auto mechanic activity area. (4) Old dumpsite. (5) Active dumpsite. (6) Recovery dumpsite. (7) Heavy traffic highway. (8) Undisturbed vegetative land that served as control. Soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters including heavy metal viz lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn). Also the ecological characteristics of AM fungi species were determined. Results showed that areas with high pollution index (PI) adversely affected the richness and diversity of AM fungi species. Seven different AM fungi ecotypes were isolated from the soil samples. These ecotypes had varied relative abundance across the locations. Species richness and diversity as measured by Shannon-Wiener index decreased in soils with PI > 20 but increased with low PI < 20. However, these organisms maintained significant populations across the locations. Thus suggesting the high possibility of facilitating microbial activity in heavy metal stressed soil ecosystems. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018

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