Dr. Obi K. Echendu

Dr. Obi Kingsley Echendu

Lecturer I


B.Tech, MSc. (FUTO), PhD (Sheffield, UK)


Dr Obi K. Echendu is a native of Umuokwara-Orlu in Orlu L. G. A. of Imo State. Born to the Family of Nze E. C. A Echendu and late Mrs. Beatrice I. EchenduObi attended Township Primary School, Orlu and Bishop Shanahan College, Orlu, Imo State. His university education was at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria and Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Dr O. K. Echendu is married with two children.


Academic Qualification

  • First School Leaving Certificate (Credit)  – 1985
  • Senior Secondary Certificate (Credit)  –  1993
  • Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) (Physics) (21)   –   FUTO, Nig. 2002
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.) (Solid State Physics and Materials Science)   –   FUTO, Nig.
  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (Thin-film solar cells)  –   Sheffield, UK. April 2014


  • Best Level student Department of Physics, FUTO (1996 – 2001)
  • TETFund Scholarship for PhD in Solar Energy at Sheffield Hallam University, UK (2010 – 2014).
  • Ambassador of Catholic Youth Organisation of Nigeria, Owerri Archdiocese (2015).
  • Recognized Reviewer – Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2013).
  • Recognized Reviewer – Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids (2015).
  • Recognized Reviewer – Solar Energy (2017).
  • Recognized Reviewer – Surfaces and Interfaces (2019).
  • Recognized Reviewer – Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter (2019).
  • Recognized Reviewer – Superlattices and Microstructures (2019).

Membership of Professional bodies

  • Institute of Physics (IOP), United Kingdom.
  • International Solar Energy Society (ISES), United Kingdom Chapter.
  • Nigerian Institute of Physics (NIP).
  • Physics Writers Series Creation (PWSC), Nigeria.
  • Renewable and Alternative Energy Society of Nigeria (RAESON).

Courses taught to date:

  • PHY 0001 – Basic Physics I (for Pre-Degree Programme, FUTO)
  • PHY 002 – Basic Physics II (for Pre-Degree Programme, FUTO)
  • PHY 101 – General Physics I (First-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 102 – General Physics II (First-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 316 – Energy and Environmental Management (Third-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 401 – Analytical Mechanics II (Fourth-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 503 – Special Relativity & Electromagnetism (Fifth-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 504 – Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (Fifth-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY591/591 – Undergraduate students projects supervision (Fifth-year Physics, FUTO)
  • PHYD 632/PHY 732 – Energy and Environmental Management (PGD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHYD 626 – Science of Materials (PGD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 705 – Electromagnetism (PGD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHYD 6 – Analytical Mechanics (PGD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHYD 6 – Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (PGD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 875 – Advanced Solar Cell Materials & Solar Cells (M.Sc. Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 971 – Review of Physics/Science of Solar Energy (PhD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 973 – Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion (PhD Physics, FUTO)
  • PHY 972 – Solar Cell fabrication and characterization techniques (PhD Physics, FUTO)
  • Postgraduate project/students research supervision – (Postgraduate students, Physics, FUTO)


  • Technical Instructor I: Imo State Technological Skills Acquisition Centre, Orlu 2004 – 2005
  • Graduate Assistant: Department of Physics, FUTO February 2005- April 2014
  • Physics Lecturer:  Pre-Degree Programme, FUTO 2006 – 2016
  • Research Assistant:      Solar Energy Group, Materials & Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK January 2014 – June 2014
  • Lecturer II:   Department of Physics, FUTO April 2014 – October 2017
  • Class Adviser:  Department of Physics, FUTO 2014 –
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow: Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, South Africa March 2017 – February 2020.
  • Lecturer I:    Department of Physics, FUTO October 2017 –

Research Interest

  • Electrodeposition of thin-film semiconductor materials for photovoltaic and other devices applications.
  • Fabrication and assessment of thin-film solar cells and other electronic devices.
  • Modelling of processes in thin-film solar cells.
  • Bandgap engineering of thin-film semiconductors and solar cells.


  1. B. C. Anusionwu and O. K. Echendu, Thermodynamic studies of the surface and transport properties in Ag-In and Ag-Sb liquid alloys, Physics and Chemistry of Liquids vol.48, No.1 (2010) 127 – 140.
  2. O. K. EchenduE. C. Mbamala and B. C. Anusionwu, Theoretical investigation of the viscosity of some liquid metals and alloys, Physics and Chemistry of Liquids vol. 49 No. 2 (2011) 247 – 258.
  3. O. K. Echendu and B. C. Anusionwu, An investigation of the viscosities of various groups of liquid metals, The African Review of Physics 6:0005 (2011) 35 – 40.
  4. D. G. Diso, F. Fauzi, O. K. Echendu, A. R. Weerasinghe and I. M. Dharmadasa, Electrodeposition and characterisation of ZnTe layers for application in CdTe based multi-layer graded bandgap solar cells, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 286 (2011) 012040. (DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/286/1/012040).
  5. O. K. Echendu, A. R. Weerasinghe, D. G. Diso, F. Fauzi and I. M. Dharmadasa, Characterization of n-type and p-type ZnS thin layers grown by electrochemical method, Journal of Electronic Materials 42 issue 4 (2013) 692-700. (DOI) 10.1007/s11664-012-2393-y.
  6. F. Fauzi, D.G. Diso, O.K. Echendu, V. Patel, Y. Purandare, R. Burton and I.M. Dharmadasa, Development of ZnTe layers using an electrochemical technique for applications in thin-film solar cells, Semiconductor Science and Technology 28: (2013) 045005 (10pp). DOI:10.1088/0268-1242/28/4/045005.
  7. R. Dharmadasa, O. K. Echendu, I. M. Dharmadasa and T. Druffel Rapid Thermal Processing in CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells by Intense Pulsed Light Sintering, Photovoltaics for the 21st Century: Electrochemical Society Transactions, Vol.58, issue 11 (2013) 67-75.
  8. Sabinus Ikechukwu Ibeneme, Kalu Kalu Ibe, Alexander Olusegun Selemo, Johnbosco Okechukwu Nwagbara, Young Ezenwa Obioha, Kingsley Obi Echendu and Bridget Odochi Ubechu, Geological investigation of a proposed site in a sedimentary terrain: A case study of Aba River at Amapu-Ideobia, Akanu Ngwa Southeastern Nigeria, International Journal of Geosciences 4 (2013) 1376 – 1381.
  9. O. K. Echendu and I. M. Dharmadasa, Effects of thickness and annealing on optoelectronic properties of electrodeposited ZnS thin films for photonic device applications, Journal of Electronic Materials 43(3) (2014) 791 – 801. DOI: 10.1007/s11664-013-2943-y.
  10. O. K. Echendu, F. Fauzi, A. R. Weerasinghe and I. M. Dharmadasa, High short-circuit current density CdTe solar cells using all-electrodeposited semiconductors, Thin Solid Films, 556 (2014) 529 – 534.
  11. I. M. Dharmadasa, P. A. Bingham, O. K. Echendu, H. I. Salim, T. Druffel, R. Dharmadasa, G. U. Sumanasekera, R. R. Dharmasena, M. B. Dergacheva, K. A. Mit, K. A. Urazov, L. Bowen, M. Walls and A. Abbas, Fabrication of CdS/CdTe-based thin-film solar cells using an electrochemical technique, Coatings 4 issue 3 (2014) 380 – 415. Doi: 10.3390/coatings4030380.
  12. M. L. Madugu, L. Bowen, O. K. Echendu and I. M. Dharmadasa, Preparation of indium selenide thin film by electrochemical technique, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 25 issue 9 (2014) 3977 – 3983. DOI:10.1007/s10854-014-2116-7.
  13. N.A. Abdul-Manaf, O.K. Echendu, L. Bowen and I.M. Dharmadasa, Development of polyaniline using the electrochemical technique for plugging pinholes in cadmium sulfide/cadmium telluride solar cells, Journal of Electronic Materials Vol. 43 No. 11(2014) 4003 – 4010, Doi: 10.1007/s11664-014-3361-5.
  14. O. I. Olusola, O. K. Echendu and I. M. Dharmadasa, Development of CdSe thin films for application in electronic devices, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 26 issue 2 (2015)1066 – 1076. DOI:10.1007/s10854-014-2506-x.
  15. A. N. Abdul-Manaf, A. R. Weerasinghe, O. K. Echendu and I. M. Dharmadasa, Electro-plating and characterisation of cadmium sulphide thin films using ammonium thiosulfate as the sulfur source, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 26 (4) (2015)2418 – 2429. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-015-7700-5.
  16. O. K. Echendu and I. M. Dharmadasa, The effect on CdS/CdTe solar cell conversion efficiency of the presence of fluorine in the usual CdCl2 treatment of CdTe, Materials Chemistry and Physics 157 (2015) 39 – 44.
  17. I. M. Dharmadasa, O. K. Echendu, F. Fauzi, N. A. Abdul-Manaf, H. I. Salim, T. Druffel, R. Dharmadasa and B. Lavery, Effects of CdCl2 treatment on deep levels in CdTe and their implications on thin-film solar cells; A comprehensive photoluminescence study. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 26 issue 7 (2015) 4571 – 4583. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-015-3090-4.
  18. O. K. Echendu and I. M. Dharmadasa, Graded-bandgap solar cells using all-electrodeposited ZnS, CdS and CdTe thin-films. Energies 8 issue 5 (2015) 4416 – 4435. DOI:10.3390/en8054416. (Special Issue).
  19. Mohammad Lamido Madugu, Olajide Ibukun-Olu Olusola, Obi Kingsley Echendu, Burak Kadem and Imyhamy Mudiy Dharmadasa, Intrinsic Doping in Electrodeposited ZnS Thin Films for Application in Large-Area Optoelectronic Devices. Journal of Electronic Materials, 45 (6) (2016) 2710 – 2717. DOI: 10.1007/s11664-015-4310-7.
  20. I. M. Dharmadasa, O. K. Echendu, F. Fauzi, H. I. Salim, N. A. Abdul-Manaf, J. B. Jasinski, A. Sherehiy, G. Sumanasekera, Study of Fermi level position before and after CdCl2 treatment of CdTe thin films using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 27 (5) (2016) 5039 – 5046. DOI:10.1007/s10854-016-4391-y.
  21. D. G. Diso, F. Fauzi, O. K. Echendu, I. O. Olusola and I. M. Dharmadasa, Optimisation of CdTe electrodeposition voltage for development of CdS/CdTe solar cells. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 27 issue 12 (2016) 12464 – 12472. DOI:1007/s10854-016-4844-3.
  22. C. E. Orji, O. K. Echendu, B. C. Anusionwu, C. C. Diala and C. A. Peter, An investigation of the physical properties of aluminium reinforced with titanium dioxide particles. Nigerian Journal of Physics 26 (2) ( 2016) 35 – 41.
  23. O. K. Echendu, U. S. Mbamara, C. Iroegbu, C. A. Madu, I. C. Ndukwe and I. M. Dharmadasa, Effects of deposition time and post-deposition annealing on the physical and chemical properties of electrodeposited CdS thin films for solar cell application, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 27 (10) (2016) 10180 – 10191. Doi: 10.1007/s10854-0165095-z.
  24. O. K. Echendu, K. B. Okeoma, C. I. Oriaku and I. M. Dharmadasa, Electrochemical deposition of CdTe semiconductor thin films for solar cell application using two-electrode and three-electrode configurations: A comparative study. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2016) 1 – 8http://dx.doi.10.1155/2016/3581725(Special Issue).
  25. I. M. Dharmadasa, O. K. Echendu, F. Fauzi, N. A. Abdul-Manaf, O. I. Olusola, H. I. Salim, M. L. Madugu, A. A. Ojo, Improvement of the composition of CdTe thin films during heat treatment in the presence of CdCl2Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 28 (3) (2016) 2343 – 2352. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-016-5802-9.
  26. Eya, D. D. O., Eze, F. C., Echendu, K. O. and Mbamara, U. S. Synthesis and optical properties of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide thin films. Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy  27 (2016) 85 – 93.
  27. Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa, Mohammad L. Madugu, Olajide I. Olusola, Obi K. Echendu, Fijay Fauzi, Dahiru G. Diso, Ajith R. Weerasinghe, Thad Druffel, Ruvini Dharmadasa, Brandon Lavery, Jacek B. Jasinski, Tatiana A. Krentsel and Gamini Sumanasekera, Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems. Coatings 7 (2) (2017); DOI:10.3390/coatings7020017.
  28. Ibeneme Sabinus Ikechukwu, Ibe Kalu Kalu, Eluwa Ndidiamaka Nchedo, Chinyem Felix Iwebunor, Nwankwo Stephen, Bulus Joseph Azi, Echendu Obi Kingsley, Electrical Resistivity and River Flow Velocity Studies of Ebonyi River Bridge Sites at Onicha-Oshiri and Idembia Areas, Southeastern Nigeria, Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering 2(2) (2017) 59-65.
  29. O. K. Echendu, B. F. Dejene and I. M. Dharmadasa, Fluorine-induced improvement of structural and optical properties of CdTe thin films for solar cell efficiency enhancement, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 28(19) (2017) 14615 – 14630.
  30. O. K. Echendu, F. B. Dejene and I. M. Dharmadasa, An investigation of the influence of different transparent conducting oxide substrates/front contacts on the performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 28(24) (2017) 18865 – 18872; DOI: 10.1007/s10845-017-7838-x.
  31. Obi Kingsley Echendu, Francis Birhanu Dejene, Imyhamy Mudiy Dharmadasa and Francis Chukwuemeka Eze, Characteristics of nanocrystalline-CdS produced by low-cost electrochemical technique for thin-film photovoltaic application: The influence of deposition voltage, International Journal of Photoenergy Volume 2017 (2017). Article ID 3989432, 13 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3989432(Special Issue: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices 2017).
  32. O. K. Echendu, B. F. Dejene and I. M. Dharmadasa, The effects of anode material type on the optoelectronic properties of electroplated CdTe thin films and the implications for photovoltaic application, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 114 (2018) 100–108.
  33. F. G. Hone, F. B. Dejene and O. K. Echendu, Bandgap tailoring of chemically synthesized lead sulfide thin films by in situ Sn doping, Surf Interface Analysis 50(6) (2018) 648 – 656.
  34. O. K. Echendu, S. Z. Werta, F. B. Dejene and V. Craciun, Electrochemical deposition and characterization of ZnOS thin films for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 769 (2018) 201 – 209. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.07.327.
  35. S. Z. Werta, O. K. Echendu, F. B. Dejene, Z. N. Urgessa and J. R. Botha, Temperature-dependent properties of electrochemically grown CdS thin films from acetate precursor, Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 124:576 (2018) 1- 10.
  36. O. K. Echendu, B. F. Dejene and F. G. Hone, Comparative performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells fabricated with electrochemically deposited CdTe from 2-electrode and 3-electrode set-ups, Materials Science & Engineering B 232–235 (2018) 55 – 60.  Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2018.11.001.
  37. O. K. Echendu, S. Z. Warta and F. B. Dejene, Effect of cadmium precursor on the Physico-chemical properties of electrochemically-grown CdS thin films for optoelectronic devices application: A comparative study, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 30(1) (2019) 365 – 377. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-018-0301-9.
  38. O. K. Echendu, S. Z. Werta, F. B. Dejene and K. O. Egbo, Structural, vibrational, optical, morphological and compositional properties of CdS films prepared by a low-cost electrochemical technique, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 778 (2019) 197 – 203. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.11.130.
  39. O. K. Echendu, S. Z. Werta, F. B. Dejene, A. A. Ojo and I. M. Dharmadasa, Ga doping of nanocrystalline CdS thin films by electrodeposition method for solar cell application: The influence of dopant precursor concentration, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics,30 (5) (2019) 4977 – 4989. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-019-00794-3.
  40. S.Z. Werta, O. K. Echendu and F. B. Dejene, Physico-chemical studies of Cd1-xZnxS thin films produced by simple two-electrode electrodeposition system for solar cell application, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 30 (6) (2019) 6201 – 6211. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-019-00922-z.
  41. S.Z. Werta, O. K. Echendu and F. B. Dejene, Optical and morphological studies of electrodeposited CdS thin film grown at different deposition times from acetate precursor, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology(2) (2019) P112-P118.
  42. S.Z. Werta, O. K. Echendu, K.O. Egbo and F. B. Dejene, Electrochemical deposition and characterization of thin-film Cd1-xZnxS for solar cell application: The effect of cathodic deposition voltage, Thin Solid Films 689 (2019) 137511, 1 – 8.
  43. A. E. Nwogwugwu, O. K. Echendu and B. C. Anusionwu, Investigation of the current-voltage characteristics of CdS/CdTe-based solar cells using model calculations, To Physics Journal vol. 3 (2019) 56 – 63. ISSN: 2581-7396.
  44. J. Ezihe, D. D. O. Eya, C. Iroegbu, O. K. Echendu and K. O. Egbo, Characterization of nanocrystallite CdAl2SO3 thin films produced by Inexpensive chemical bath techniques for photonic device applications: The influence of annealing temperature, To Physics Journal vol. 3 (2019) 224 – 242. ISSN: 2581-7396.
  45. I. M. Dharmadasa, A. E. Alam, A. A. Ojo and O. K. Echendu, Scientific complications and controversies noted in the field of CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells and the way forward for further development, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 30 (2019) 20330–20344.(Review).
  46. S. Z. Werta, O. K. Echendu and F. B. Dejene, Simplified two-electrode electrochemical growth and characterization of Cd1−xZnxS thin films: Influence of electrolytic bath pH, Physica B 580 (411939) (2020) 1 – 7.