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The General Studies Programme in FUTO began with the first intake of students in 1981. Only Use of English was offered to students then. By 1982, a full Programme of English, Philosophy, Economics and Sociology was offered in a unit attached to the School of Management Technology (SMAT). In 1986, the Unit was made autonomous under it’s own Director as envisaged originally in the FUTO master plan. However, in 1987, during Professor Amagh Nduka’s tenure as VC, this status again gave way to that of a unit in SMAT with a Head of Department instead of a Director. It remained so for many years until the 5th substantive Vice Chancellor, Professor C. O. E. Onwuliri returned it to it’s original status of a Directorate headed by a Director with the status of a dean.
From a humble beginning of about three members of staff, the Directorate currently has a total of seventy-five (75) academic staff. This is made up of professors, readers, senior lecturers and a host of other promising junior academics.
The Directorate of General Studies is comprised of five units, namely:
These units have their various heads/coordinators.

Prof. Jerry Obi-Okogbuo, KSJI, FCAI, ululo

Director, Directorate of General Studies Ph.D., M.A., B. Phil (Hons),
Directorate's Email: general.studies@futo.edu.ng
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Directorate of General Studies (2017-2018)

List of 2017-2018 Publications and Abstract of Research from Directorate of General Studies

S/NAuthor's Name & year of publicationTitle of workAbstractJournal NameJournal Vol./Number
1Egbegi, F. R. and Iheriohanma, E. B. J (2018). Exploring The Synergic Relationship Between Asuu And Federal Government In Restoring Industrial Harmony In Nigeria Public Universities The reoccurring nature of industrial unrest in Nigerian public universities impinges on the ethos of academic excellence thereby making the universities objects of caricature. Inadequate funding and the poor state of educational facilities in public universities have provoked fear towards intellectual decline. This paper explores the synergic relationship between ASUU and FG. This study is anchored on the relative deprivation theory. It also adopted primary and secondary data from distributed copies of the questionnaire, interviews, journal articles, textbooks and newspapers. This paper notes that something has to be done to avoid lecturers and professional researchers deserting the Ivory Tower. The poor state of facilities and infrastructure in the universities should immediately be revived. The study, therefore, recommends that university education should be given priority attention where the Federal government is expected to sincerely strive to meet an internationally approved standard of funding the public universities. The Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity should be strengthened with appropriate legislation to persistently engage ASUU effectively in meaningful dialogue on the best practices in resolving industrial conflicts in Nigerian public universities. Keywords: ASUU, Federal Government, Synergic relationship, Industrial harmony, Public universities. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) www.iosrjournals.org Volume 23, Issue 3, Ver. 1(March. 2018) PP 14-23
2Njoku, K. C., Ugwulebo, E. O. and Iheriohanma, E.B.J. (2018). FEAR OF RETIREMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE IMO STATE PUBLIC SERVICE, NIGERIA This study is on fear of retirement and productivity among public servants in Imo State public service. The general objective of this study is to investigate what instigates the perceived fear slack and unwillingness to retire by public servants and how the perceived fear, slack and unwillingness affect public servants productivity in the Imo State public service. The study examined factors that instigated the perceived fear and unwillingness to retire by public servants in the public service of Imo State. The study examined whether the fear and unwillingness to retire from service is occasioned by such factors as the government attitude towards retirees, the non-payment and irregular payment of retirees’ benefits, and inability of the prospective retirees to plan ahead for an alternative source of additional income on retirement. The study also looked at the effect of the perceived fear and unwillingness to retire on productivity of the public servants using such variables of productivity as lateness to duty, absenteeism, truancy, demand for gratification and prompt execution of assigned duties. A review of related literature was done for a guide, while Weberian Social Action Theory and Coleman Rational Choice Theory were used to anchor the study. The research design involved the use of survey method, proportionate and simple random sampling and use of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. A total of 724 correctly copies of filled questionnaire were collected and used for analysis. A combination of descriptive statistics such as frequency tables, correlation coefficients, cross-tabulation, linear regression, chi-square, mean and standard deviation and one-way ANOVA were used in analyzing the data. The findings show that there is evidence of fear of retirement in the Imo State public service. Non and irregular payment of entitled benefits to retirees is an instigating factor to the fear and unwillingness to retire. The findings also show that public servants in Imo State public service lack self-confidence and creativity, they also lack savings, capital, a spirit of entrepreneurship, have limited skill and competencies to live a decent life on retirement. In view of the objectives of the study, three hypotheses were formulated and tested. The study recommended among others. The government should ensure that the welfare of public servants in terms of payment of entitled benefits such as pensions and gratuity should be of the first charge to reduce the fear of retirement and incidence of stress, anxiety and the attendant graft prevalent in the Imo State Public service that the adoption of the Pension Reform Act 2014 by all levels of governments in Nigeria especially in Imo State to minimize the phenomenon of fear of retirement in the public service. Keywords: Retirement, Productivity, Public Service, Fear Journal of Research in Development (JORIND) 16(1) June 2018. ISSN 1596-8303. www.transcampus.org/journal; www.ajol.info/journals/jorind 16(1) June, 2018pp 204 – 220.
3Iheriohanma, E. B. J. and Emenyonu, C., C. (2018). SYNERGIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFECTIVE INFORMATION AND INTELLIGENCE NEEDS ANALYSIS, UTILIZATION AND SECURITY IN NIGERIA The general objective of the paper examines critically the synergic relationship between effective information and intelligence needs gathering, analysis and utilization in relation to the security situation in Nigeria. Effective pursuit and execution of security needs in every nation depend critically on the conscious security information drive, intelligence gathering, the existence of the necessary security gadgets and apparatus, the zeal of the citizenry to be security conscious and to provide information needed, the will power of the government in place and security institutions to analyze and utilize the available information and intelligence gathered. The challenging problems of study indicate that budgetary funds are made available to security agencies and institutions yet insecurity prevails in Nigeria, lives and properties are destroyed on daily basis, foreign investors relocate out of Nigeria for fear of insecurity, inability of security agencies to pro-actively respond to security demands, seemingly government complicity in curtailing the incessant insecurity, etc. These point to the lack of information and intelligence needs gathering and analysis, lack of relevant modern ICT security equipment and personnel, sharing intelligence information and collaborative efforts among these agencies. The paper is discursive and analytical in methodology. While the paper examined the challenges faced by these agencies and reasons for their ineffectiveness, it avers that, in order to buttress security and grow the economy, the government of Nigeria should, among others, ensure that there are collaborative and effective information and intelligence drive, analysis, sharing and utilization in relation to security pursuit; high technological military hardware for surveillance should be in use; sentiments, individualism, exclusionism, ethnicity and parochialism should not be above national interest; economy should be boosted through job creation, employment, empowerment, entrepreneurship, industrialization and manufacture to mitigate the burden on the agencies and create opportunity for individuals and institutions to explore their potentials and the economy to blossom. Keywords: effective information needs, intelligence, information analysis, utilization, insecurity, Nigeria European Journal of Social Sciences Studies ISSN: 2501-8590 ISSN-L: 2501-8590 Available online at www.oapub.org/soc Volume 2 │ Issue 12 │ 2018pp 137 - 150
4Okoroafor, E. C. Okoroafor and Iheriohanma, E. B. J. (2018). INEQUALITY IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AND WOMEN PRODUCTIVITY IN IMO STATE CIVIL SERVICE, NIGERIA The thrust of this study is to investigate the effect of inequality in training and development on women productivity in Nigeria Civil Service using Imo State Civil Service as the main focus. The study seeks to examine whether gender inequality exists in the Imo State Civil Service and to ascertain whether women experience unequal opportunity for training and development in the state’s civil service. One hypothesis was formulated and tested in the course of the study. The work reviewed related literature and some empirical studies. The study uses the Theory of Patriarchy as the theoretical guide. The data were collected through primary sources(questionnaire and interviews) and secondary sources (textbooks, journals, publications, etc). The purposive, proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were variously applied at different stages. Twopurposively selected Ministry of Agriculture, Environment and Natural Resources and the Ministry of Works and transport in Imo State Civil Service were used in the study. The data for this study were analyzed using tables and percentages while chi-square statistical tool was employed for testing the hypothesis. The findings showed that there were unequal opportunities for training and development against women and this is negatively affecting their productivity. This situation confirmed the prevalence of gender inequality in the Imo State civil service. The study recommends that more efforts should be put to ensure equal opportunity for all staff and to prioritize gender mainstreaming and transparency in civil service activities/programmes in order to encourage a gender-friendly working environment for women’s enhanced productivity in the Imo State Civil Service. Keywords: Gender Inequality, Training, Development, Productivity, Civil Service. Journal of Research in Development (JORIND) 16(1) June, 2018. ISSN 1596-8303. www.transcampus.org/journal; www.ajol.info/journals/jorind 16(1) June, 2018.Pp 126 - 138
5Nwokorie, C. N. and Iheriohanma, E. B. J. (2018). A Comparative Analysis of Marital Child Care Obligations of Women Working In Public and Private Sector Organizations in Imo State, Nigeria The study examined the effect hours women spend at work have on the quality of child care among working women in the public and private sector organizations in Imo State, Nigeria. This study is anchored on the Rational Choice Theory. The quantitative data for this study were collected from 524 respondents selected from two privately and two publicly owned organizations in Imo State while the qualitative data were from 8 key informants interviewed. The objective of this study is to examine whether the hours spent at work by women working in the private or public sector can affect the quality of child care. The quantitative data were analyzed using a combination of percentage, Correlation Coefficient, Chi-square, Cross-tabulation, Mean and Standard Deviation, and one-way ANOVA while the qualitative data were analysed thematically in content form. The hypothesis revealed that the longer time a woman spends at work, the less time she spends with her children. Thus, hours women spend at work significantly influence the quality of child care that lack of adequate attention, satisfaction and frequent absence of the woman can contribute to the increasing cases of social vices, like truancy, gambling, indiscipline, etc. The study suggests that the government and private organizations should formulate labour policies that will enable women spend ample time in the offices and with the children to enhance their efficiency and effectiveness both in her workplace and in their marital obligations. Keywords: Marital obligations, Childcare obligations, Working women, Public and Private sectors, Work hours, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/487X-2007033246 www.iosrjournals.org Volume 20, Issue 7. Ver. III (July. 2018), PP 32-46
6Omeire, C. O., Iheriohanma, E. B. J., Njoku, O. A., Omeire, E. U. and Onoh, P.A. (2017). Empirical Investigation on the Practice and Acceptance of Child Adoption in Igbo Land, South Eastern Nigeria The study scientifically investigated the social phenomenon of child adoption in rural communities in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. The objectives were to empirically ascertain whether these Igbo communities were involved in the practice of child adoption and determine if adopted children were accepted by the communities. A sample size of 389 respondents selected through a simple random method, across nine rural communities from three senatorial zones in Imo State was used. A questionnaire, in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and secondary data were employed for data collection. The survey research design was utilized. Descriptive statistics and regression models were used in analyzing the quantitative data while content analysis was utilized to explain the qualitative data. The study revealed that people in rural communities in Imo State participate in child adoption. It further showed that the behaviour and attitude of people in rural communities in Imo State towards adoptees indicate acceptance of child adoption. The study recommended the projection of child adoption as a viable alternative to parenting in the face of fertility challenges. It further advocated that necessary steps be taken to ensure the sustenance of the acceptance of child adoption. Keywords: Empirical Investigation, Child, Adoption, Igbo, Nigeria. Futo Journal Series (FUTOJNLS) e-ISSN : 2476-8456 p-ISSN : 2467-8325 Volume-3, Issue-1, pp- 77 - 87 www.futojnls.org 7/1/2017
7UKACHUKWU, C. C. and IHERIOHANMA, E. B. J., (2017). NIGERIA UNION OF TEACHERS’ EFFORTS ON ADEQUATE WAGES AND PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA This study focused on investigating whether the Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT), Imo State Chapter, through its efforts as the representative of the collective will of teachers in Imo State, has been able to ensure payment of adequate wages to teachers in public schools in Imo State. It went further to examine how this effort, whether positive or not, has affected the performance of South-South Journal of Culture and Development Vol. 19 (1) April 2017 2 teachers. Three Local Government Areas in Imo State, namely Owerri Municipal, Owerri North and Owerri West LGAs, were purposively selected for this study. Six hundred and ninety-eight (698) respondents participated in the study and 15 key persons in the State and LGA Offices of the NUT were interviewed. Analysis of the data was based on simple percentages. The study found, among others, that the wages teachers receive in Imo State are inadequate and this affects the performance of teachers and the educational system in general. It recommends that to attract and retain high performance and result, oriented teachers, the NUT must endeavour to impress on the state government to take positive steps in considering the seemingly recurrent demands of teachers for the payment of adequate and equitable wages in this competitive environment of a 21st century Nigeria and to stem the tide of recurring disputes in the education sector. South-South Journal of Culture and Development Vol. 19 (1) April, 2017www.ssjcd.org or Google ssjcd Vol. 19 (1) April, 2017, pp176 - 198
8Amaechi, L. N. (2017). Failed State and the challenges of economic development in Nigeria: University of Nigeria. The study investigated failed State and the challenges of economic development in Nigeria. The specific issue is to understand if Nigeria is a failed state judging from the established index of State failure by scholars and looking at its economic development challenges. The study is documentary research and data were analyzed through the qualitative descriptive method. Using Marxist Theory of the paper found that the economic development measured in terms of national income Nigeria far exceeds human development. This however does not result in State failure. Rather it is a manifestation of weak economic structures resulting in slow economic development. Therefore, we recommend that Nigerian leaders embrace strong political leadership capable of pursuing viable development measures. Such a strong political leadership will also address the issue of corruption which is the root of underdevelopment in the country. Keywords: State, Economic, Development, Marxist, Leadership Journal of Political Science Vol. 10 No 1
9Amaechi, L. N. (2017). Technological Dependency and Nigeria’s Roles in the 21st century Globalized Economy. in the University of Nigeria. Nigeria's adventure in the global economic arena started since 1970s owing to oil boom of that era. Since then, Nigeria has witnessed consequential global economic relevance, on one hand, as well as formidable global economic challenges, on the other. However, this study argues that the reconfiguration of the world economy from oil-based to the technological-based economy is responsible for Nigeria inconsequential role in the 21st-century technology-based economy given the country's technological backwardness. The study investigates the implications of technological dependence on Nigeria's role in the 21st-century globalised economy. The study was anchored on basic assumptions of post-colonial state theory and utilized the secondary method of data collection largely drawn from relevant books, official publications, journal articles and internet resources. The study recommended a gradual de-linkage from foreign technology and to promote a home-grown technology in line with citizen's ideas, inventions, innovations as well as creativities in conformity with national socio-economic developmental objectives; like its Asian Tigers counterparts rather than continuous dependent on foreign technology for developmental survival. This will reposition the country towards global economic limelight as it were prior to the emergence of 21*' century technological-based economy. Keywords: Globalised economy, 21st Century, Technological, Technological Dependence Journal of Political Economy Vol 10 No1
10Amaechi, L. N. (2017). Human security of the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the Terror/Counter. Terrorism, insurgency and communal conflicts have become the biggest hazards to global peace and stability in the contemporary times. Since the emergence of the new millennium, the incidence of terrorism, insurgency and communal conflicts have been on a steady worldwide, posing increasingly difficult challenges for mode governments both at state and regional levels. Terrorism and commune conflicts have direct negative impacts on human security devastating consequences for the enjoyment of the right to life, liberty, and physical integrity of victims. In addition to individual costs,] terrorism can destabilize governments, undermine civil society, jeopardize peace card security and also threaten social and economic development. Accordingly, states, therefore, have an obligation to ensure that the security of the citizens is guaranteed by taking positive measures] to protect them against the threat of terrorism. This paper is an effort to study how human security of the internally displaced persons in Nigeria has been implicated in the conflicts in the major conflict zones of the country. International Journal of Modern Political Economy Vol 8 No 1 &2
11Amaechi, L. N. (2017). International Election observers and Electoral process in Nigeria (1999) This study examined contributions made by International Election Observers in promoting electoral process in Nigeria. The study argued that transparency, voters' confidence and acceptability are needed to achieve credibility, free, and fair elections in the electoral process. It noted that lack of these variables had led to flawed elections in which the electoral process was undermined over the years. The study adopted the explanatory research design and used International Norm theory as the theoretical framework of analysis. The method used for data analysis was content analysis and applied narrative analytical techniques. After vigorous analysis of data drawn mainly from a secondary source, the study revealed that significant increase was recorded in voters' registration form 1999-2015 which added value and confidence to the electoral process. Independent National Electoral Commission changed from manual to electronic biometric data capturing machine for registration and smart card reader for verification in 2015. The study recommended that biometric registration should be sustained. The software for double registration and underage should be introduced in the registration polling units. The voters' turnout will increase if honesty and continuous election awareness are maintained. While proved electoral offenders should face a four (4) year jail term. African Political Science Review Vol. 9 Numbers 1 & 2
12Amaechi, L. N. and Green, E. I. (2017). The Government Policy ‘Need’ and the challenges of unemployment in Nigeria. The success or failure of any National Perennial problem lies vehemently on the socioeconomic background or structure of that nation. This is evident in so many remedial, developments protective and rescue policies the government has advanced or propounded in recent times. The policy of NEEDS, in spite of its widely heralded and officially acclaimed nature, becomes a victim of the negative influence of Nigeria's socio-cultural and economic milieu. This is so because of our investigation and analysis of this work the critical analysis of the failure or success of any of the government policies and why? Which is the crux of this work proves more or less unsuccessful as unemployment is still one of the most crucial problems of Nigeria hence the contributory factors marshalled out in the work for the policymakers and other government practitioners to learn. African Political Science Review Vol. 9 Numbers 1 & 2
13Amaechi, L. N. (2018). Integrating Women in Politics and Leadership for sustainable development in Nigeria. Many West African countries usually experience owe farm of intra-state wars, political violence, electoral malpractices and sometimes democratic conflict and breakdown of law and order flue to the effects of the political culture that undermines an ideal democratic system. In Nigeria, the ethnic political cleavage, religious and cultural affiliation and recycling of particular political elites into the motions political system become the major determinants of the success of the political system. Such issues usually result in political violence, electoral malpractices, political thuggery, and falsification of electoral result, social insecurity, democratic deficits and other emaciated political challenges. The paper therefore discussed political culture, democracy and ideal democracy, it also discussed some, democratic deficits the country has experienced since, independence and various measures to be embarked upon to correct the menace in order to achieve the democratic dividends. The paper used a secondary source of information for the mark and recommends an immediate change of the country's political ideology and re-orientation of Nigerians towards their political culture, beliefs, political values and practices. Keywords: Political culture, democracy, ideal democracy and democratic deficit. American International Journal of Social Sciences www.aijssnet.com Vol. 7 No 2
14Amaechi, L. N. (2018). The Use of Masquerade Cult and Umu-Ada Fraternity (Igbo Daughters) for Peace and Conflict Resolution in Eastern Nigeria (Igbo Land) There are some cases, social problems and cultural conflicts experienced in most Igbo communities of Eastern Nigeria. Such social issues are cultural discrimination such as outcasts (Osu), slavery (Ohu), obnoxious widowhood practices, communal clashes and land disputes. The crisis, conflicts, clashes, violence, disagreements and -wars that usually come up in most of the Igbo communities in Eastern regions were and are still been handled, managed or been resolved through the use of masquerade cult and daughters of the land (Umu-Ada) to render social justice. The paper discussed the concept of masquerade cult and Umu-Ada fraternity (Igbo daughters) in conflict resolution in Eastern Nigeria, The paper examined the socio-political implications of the treatment given to the slaves (Ohu), outcaste (Osu) and widows to the nation's development. The paper also discussed the need to revive the use of such traditional institutions for peace and conflict resolution and the challenges confronting them. The paper therefore recommended government sponsorship for the effective functioning of masquerade cult and Umu-Ada (Igbo daughters) for peace and conflict resolution in Nigeria. Keywords: Masquerade cult and Igbo daughters fraternity (Umu-Ada) in conflict resolution, methods of conflict resolution and challenges. American International Journal of Social Sciences www.aijssnet.com Vol. 7, No 2
15Amaechi, L.N. (2018). Political culture and Ideal Democracy in Nigeria. Food security is the ability to provide enough food to the entire population of a particular state or country at all times. The paper discussed the concept of food security, various ways, policies and strategies to be embarked upon by the government for sustainable agricultural development to ensure adequate food security. The need for agricultural sustainability was examined; it also discussed the socio-economic implication of sustainable agriculture and its challenges. The paper recommends no improved policy execution, monitoring/ evaluation and support to agriculture by the Federal government as the measures for a sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. Keywords; Food security, agricultural sustainability and government intervention European Academic Journal Research. www.eu.academic.org Vol 5 Issue 12
16Amaechi, L.N. (2018). Women and Conflict Management in Africa. European Conflicts usually exist where there are different views on certain issues. It can occur as a result of different principles, ideologies, beliefs, culture, religion and reasoning. When conflict erupts, the need for its management arises. Conflict management is a strategy to bring peace or avoid war and violence and women can play their active role in conflict management be it among individuals, groups of people, communities or states. The paper, therefore, evaluates the concept of conflict and conflict management, kinds of conflict, causes of conflict and methods or strategies for its management in Nigeria. The paper also examines some theories in conflict management and the need for peaceful co-existence in a nation or effective conflict management or violence-free society. The paper, therefore, recommends proper training and guidance of their children, youths and other grown-ups in their environment by inculcating the need for peaceful co-existence and tolerance as regards to the issue of religious, cultural and political difference (Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria). It also recommends an inculcation of conflict resolution studies into the Nigerian educational curriculum. Keywords: Women, Conflict and Management European Academic Journal Research www.eu.academic.org
17Amaechi, L. N. (2018). Food Security and Sustainable Agricultural Development in Nigeria Women are born with great potentials both in mind, spirit and brain. The management of the domestic affairs of many homes is usually in the hands of women. If women can manage their homes effectively, they can as well manage office position and political affairs of any nation since homes and families make up the society, state and nation. Unfortunately in Africa, most especially Nigeria, there is gender inequality in power distribution, leadership and political affairs of the nation. Women exclusion in Nigerian polity and leadership has resulted in a lot of challenges such as democratic deficit, which include social insecurity, food insecurity, infrastructural decay, poverty, unemployment and others. The paper therefore discussed the need for women integration in leadership and polity of Nigeria, the impact of the past women is different political positions and the socio-economic implications of women exclusion in the nation's polity. The paper also discussed factors militating against women participation in leadership and polity in Nigeria and various strategies to improve women integration. The paper recommends equal opportunity in policy-making and execution irrespective of gender differences. Educational and economic empowerment by the government for the interested women in leadership and politics in Nigeria. Keywords: women integration, impacts, socio-economic implication of women exclusion, strategies and challenges. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention Vol. No.5
18Ahumaraeze, C. I. and Nwachukwu, U. A. 2017. Women And The Revolutionary Spirit: Using Mariama Ba’s So Long A Letter, Akachi Adimara- Ezeigbo’s Trafficked And Chinua Achebe’s Anthills Of The Savanna As Parsdigms Literature as a discipline has attracted varying dimensions of attention over the years. Scholars have conceptualized literature and have come up with postulations. As the literary genres develop, so also do the criticism on these genres. The critical approach to the study of literature has come to x-ray literary works to ascertain their content and worth. It is through this critical approach that certain preoccupations of writers and their depiction and portraiture of characters are beginning to raise eyebrows and are being questioned. Thus, efforts are being made in many quarters to dismantle the ugly trend of imbalance character portrayal in works of literature. It is through this critical approach that the ideology of feminism sparked off from. Writers are now on a corrective mission to balance the equation for the writings of many men has been one-sided, portraying the female as baseless. Writers have made revolution part of their tool for this onerous task. It is in view of the foregoing that this paper critically analyses the revolutionary spirit in women. Drawing from the experiences of characters in Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter, Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked and Chinua Achebe’s Anthill of the Savannah, the paper posits that writers can, through their character portrayal, effect changes in the scheme of things in the society and chart a new path for the society to follow. It draws extensively from the feminist ideology making statements that revolution is an indispensable ingredient in the strife for self-empowerment and self-actualization. The paper then recommends that for the growth, the progress of the society, there should be balanced character portrayal, and female writers should galvanize their fellow women into actions that will culminate in self-actualization. European Journal Of English Language Teaching Volume 2, Issue 3.
19Anigbogu, N. C. 2017. THE QUEST FOR MALE-CHILDREN IN BUCHI EMEHCETA’S THE JOY OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH The desire to perpetuate lineages makes some African families crave for male children. BuchiEmecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood unfolds this urge in a perceptible manner. The study, therefore, explores the male and female attitudes to the quest for male children. It portrays the desperate search and yearning for male children in the novel. Also, the study critically analyses the effects of the hankering on the female child who discovers that her parents desired a male child before her birth and would have preferred a male child. Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah uncovers the effects palpably. Thus, the study shows both the negative and positive upshot of the incontrovertible desire. KEYWORDS: Male-Children, BuchiEmehceta’s, Motherhood, Chinua Achebe’s European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies Vol.5, No.2,
20Onuoha, R., A. and Christopher, N. M. (2017). Using the writing workshop to improve reading The study investigated the effect of using the writing workshop to improve reading in senior secondary school students. Most public schools in Nigeria do not explicitly teach reading and writing to students, hence most of these students have poor reading and writing competences. This study applied the writing workshop strategy (Fletcher & Portalupi, 2001) to teach reading to a small group of secondary school students in Ezinihitte Mbaise, near Owerri, South-East Nigeria. The study employed the qualitative method of participant observation. A comparison of students’ reading and writing performance before and after the study showed that the treatment had a positive effect on the reading and writing competencies of the subjects. It was concluded that using the writing workshop to teach students who are being prepared for the senior secondary school certificate examinations to actively read and write in the English language will go a long way to improve their competence in both readings and writing the language. It is recommended that both the government and all stakeholders should adopt this strategy alongside other useful ones to improve the performance of students in internal and external examinations. European Journal of English Language Teaching Volume 3, Issue 2, 2017
21Obiagwu, O. V., 2018. The Role of Justice in an Ideal Democratic System (Nigeria as a case study). The role of justice in any democratic society cannot be overemphasized. This is because it accelerates or slows the society in the area of proper growth and development. Hence, it is given that justice and democracy are central ideals of liberal political morality. Although vast bodies of literature have been devoted to each of them, their relation to each other and remain relatively under-explored. Nevertheless, contemporary liberals agreed that only democratic arrangements can be just, but disagree on why democracy matters. Some believe its value is instrumental; others believe it is intrinsic. On the former view, democratic participation is not a requirement of justice but a means of discovering or implementing its demands. Democracy is intrinsically just: it is part of any plausible articulation of justice itself. This paper argues that in the presence of thin reasonable disagreement about justice, we should value democracy only instrumentally (if at all); in the presence of deep reasonable disagreement about justice, we should value it also intrinsically, as a necessary demand of justice. Since the latter type of disagreement is pervasive in real-world politics. It pays particular attention to the Nigerian Society and how justice would imply an ideal democratic system. Keywords: Justice, Democracy, Ideal System, Nigeria FAHSANU JOURNAL (Journal of the Arts/Humanities). Vol. 1, Number 2.
22Obiagwu, O. V., 2018. MEDIA ETHICS: Challenges and Prospects. The knowledge they say is power, but it can only come through information and one of the fastest means of getting information is through what has been regarded as the media. The media are those means of communication from person or group to the next irrespective of how the message was sent across and how it was received. What matters is that when there is intercourse between one person and the other, communication has taken place through one medium or the other. This is ordinarily one of the basic features of the human person and because human persons are imbued with rationality this intercourse yields information. Knowledge of that horizon thus expressed should be the result of the intercourse. This assertion presupposes that what was given or exchanged during such intercourse must be true, right, good, and beautiful otherwise the recipient of the exchange may not be properly edified from such an experience. This is criminal in that the person has been demeaned, the dignity and nobility due to him or her lowered if not decimated. The person has been used. REFLECTIONS ON THEATRE, MEDIA AND HUMAN CONDITIONS “NOBE UKROR” (A festschrift in honour of Prof. Edde Iji). Vol. 1, Number 1.
23Obiagwu, O. V., 2018. The Ethical Values of African Traditional Media. Media practice in the present generation has been associated with all forms of malpractices which are occasioned as a result of corruption. The conventional media practice in this period lacks in values which have caused bias and loss of trust on both the medium itself and the practitioners. The relevant indigenous ethical and cultural values like integrity, truthfulness and courage, with the essence of beauty, love and the good associated with the African traditional media are presented here to boast the morality standard of media practice in the contemporary times. The lack of these values in the conventional media has affected their level of acceptance especially when not presented in collaboration with the African traditional media ethics. Efforts are made in comparing media efficiency in the conventional context and the African traditional system that comes in the form of voices, sounds, signs, objects and performances. Considerations are made to determine their similarities and differences. African traditional media remain simple, affordable, democratized, accessible and readily a dependable collaborator with the conventional media. Keywords: Ethical, Traditional, Value, Media, Cultural, Conventional. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT REVIEW (INJODEMAR). Vol. 13, Number 1.
24Obiagwu, O. V., 2018. Rural Developmental Values In Folk Media (A case study of Igbos in Nigeria). The practice of the media without recourse to fundamental ethical value in the bane of rural development, as it has made development static in the rural areas. To solve this problem, there have been some courses for the reinvention of the indigenous fundamental values of the people which can be popularized by modern media systems. The folk media is on such drive towards the reinvention and reintroduction of some fundamental ethical value in the practice of the media for a better rural development since there is an inability to demonstrate the much desire ethical values through the conventional media. The main thrust of the work, therefore, is to make manifest those values in folk media capable of accelerating folk media. CALABAR JOURNAL OF LIBERAL STUDIES (an Interdisciplinary Journal). Vol. 20, Number 1.
25Obiagwu, O. V., 2017. The Symbolism of Igbo Traditional Media. In the age and time when there are no more elevating values in the practice of the media and where even the most obscene and lurid are permissible, coupled with a craze for wanton commercialization of all media products and processes, there will be a need for an alternative. The necessity of the Igbo Traditional Media spring therefore from the fact that other forms of media have failed in the light of social-political corruption, moral decadence, castigation and not being able to stand as the conscience of the society in the socio-political and religious systems. To the extent that today, Media practitioners are either easily bought or intimidated in the course of doing their work. The people they give the message are not always close to them like in the case of Igbo Traditional media. They can as such pay less attention to objectivity and get away with it. But this can be much more difficult in the case of Igbo Traditional media. Here the system is a closed circuit with much more attention being paid to the individuals involved. Just like an Igbo adage has it that ‘one cannot sale a leaping fowl at home’. COPERNICAN (International Journal of Metascience, Science and Technology). Vol. 1, Number ½.
26Obiagwu, O. V., 2017. The Nigeria Mass Media and the Virtue of Truth-Telling in the Face of Corruption. Media responsibility implies living up to the expectations of the society in terms of truth-telling and objectivity of reports. The media have to operate within a given code of ethics for it to be an effective tool in the fight against corruption in Nigeria. There are acceptable absolutes for the media profession, upon which this study is based. The scope, therefore, covers all the areas where the mass media laws allow some professional operations through some expository and analytic methods with constructive criticism and prospective recommendations that are devoid of an imposition of standards from outside the media professional norms. This work puts the Nigeria mass media on the known of the facts that corrupt practices are perpetuated only when the public is not adequately sensitized on the need to hold the perpetrators accountable Nigeria as a third world country is burdened with a good number of development challenges, of which corruption is a major factor among them. The Nigerian media, therefore, have a major role to play as it affects truth-telling in the face of corruption. Keywords: Symbolism, Media, Traditional. NDUNODE (Calabar Journal Journal of humanities). Vol. 12, Number 1.
27Onyeakazi, J. 2018. RELEVANCE OF JOHN DEWEY’S PRAGMATISM OF QUALITATIVE EDUCATION IN A DEPRESSED ECONOMY It is a truism that Dewey’s philosophy of education is pragmatic, rather than “armchair speculation”. He insisted that education and philosophy are geared towards a positive impact on society. For him, ‘what nutrition and reproduction are to physiological life, (quality) education is to social life’. Quality Education forms the bedrock of any national development. It does this by training the mind of the nation to guarantee a clear and distinctive vision so that the nation could plan thongs ahead of time. But the myriad problems of illiteracy have eclipsed man’s talents. There has been in Nigeria, a dwindling of the vision of education which is now choking socio-economic development, and literacy among citizens. These problems have had effects on the educational system in our country. It could be stated that most people have not had the opportunity to actualize that incessant desire in man to better his lots through self-effort and learning. The result is massive illiteracy due to poor vision and disinterestedness in educational maters which in turn depresses the economy. Based on this idea, John Dewey maintained that education must be practical and functional in both principle and theory. Hence, this work, therefore, evaluates the relevance of Dewey’s pragmatic theory of education as a paradigm for economic growth. It, therefore, posits that education should not be wholistically centred on the mind. Hence, proposes “Pragmatic Education” that encourages learning by doing and also encourages cooperation between the learner and the teacher. This, in turn, will enhance a qualitative education and productivity in the economy. The method is analytical and evaluative methods on the body of literature on John Dewey. Key Words: Pragmatism, Education, Economy, Development, Depression, Society. ORACLE OF WISDOM JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS VOL. 2, NO. 2, 74-86.
28Onyeakazi, J. 2018. NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA: A PHILOSOPHICAL INSIGHT The issue of national integration and the peaceful co-existence of the pluralistic and multicultural Nigerians in Nigeria has been a national discourse in the country since it secured independence in 1960. Despite global states’ adoption of the constitutional principle of “unity within diversity” among nations, national integration remains a major challenge to most nations, including Nigeria. The state of national integration in Nigeria has been under the persistent negative influence of the issues of insecurity, poverty/deprivation, illiteracy, and ignorance, corruption, poor leadership/governance, etc. The paper argues that the application of philosophical insight by Nigerians through the way of seeking and upholding the fundamental value of truth has the potentials to positively renew our individual and collective consciousness, perceptions, thoughts and behaviour to relate and co-exist for the good of one another and the nation and also change the narrative of national integration in Nigeria. It recommends that Basic Philosophy should be made a compulsory course for tertiary institution students; governments, organizations and particularly individuals should put more emphasis on seeking and upholding the truth at all times in the course of governance/management and relationships in every position and capacity. Keywords: National Integration, Philosophy, Philosophical Insight INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NOVEL RESEARCHES IN HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND MANAGEMENT VOL. 1, NO. 1, 51-61.
29Chukwu, U. K., Okeke, F. A. and Amandi F. Okoye O. 2018. “From the Green to the Coast: Language Yielding to Context” The purpose of this paper is to examine the place of linguistics study in the present-day interdisciplinary dialogue between ecology and other disciplines. No doubt, the interest in the ecology has gained so much prominence in recent years. From the Great Movement and Conservation Campaigns in Europe and America which have spread to other parts of the world, great effort is geared towards a reevaluation of the relationship that people have maintained with their environment. This reflects in the efforts of scholars in different disciplines and orientations to discover collaborative points between their disciplines and the promotion of the ecology. It is against this background that language scholars have evolved ecolinguistics as a confluence between language and the ecology. This paper, therefore, examines ecolinguistics against the background of how the English language has yielded to the discourses on the Niger Delta ecological devastation. It relies on the functionality of language and the intricate relationship between language and context to argue that from the “preserve green” interest in Europe and America to the “save the coast from pollution” cry of the Niger Deltans in Nigeria, English language has exhibited significant elasticity which accommodates the varying ecological experiences of the different societies. To illustrate this, the paper analyses seven poems by four poets who have been randomly selected. However, for the purpose of length, the analysis is delimited to the morphological features in the poems. The conclusion of the paper is that ecology is a unique domain with the potential of influencing language techniques and choices and such influences could be used to linguistically characterize this domain. Journal of English Language and Literature Conference, JELLCON, Department of English Language and Literature, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Vol1, No 1, pp 32-43
30Chukwu, U. K., Oko, C. C. and Chukwuka, A. C. 2017. “The Place of Language in Crisis Management:: A Linguistic Reading of J.P. Clark’s The Wives Revolt” Literature has always functioned as a confluence platform for different interests and approaches in discussing the society. From appreciating the creative prowess of writers; interrogating the image of the society as mirrored in creative works; examining the philosophies and ideologies of human existence implicit in literary creations; entertainment which emanates from the humour and ridicule often offered by the dialectic dispositions of the literary personae; and so on, scholars of different orientations have seen literary work as a veritable source of data. Essentially, from the arm of linguistics, literary works offer a great opportunity for the examination of language in actual use. This paper, therefore, anchors on the inalienable relationship between language and literature to examine the place of language in crisis creation and crisis management, using J.P. Clark’s The Wives Revolt as its data. The paper relies on the face theory of critical discourse analysis which emphasises the role of language in face threat and face management. The conclusion of the paper is that, just as dramatized in the selected play, injudicious use of language is one of the major sources of crisis in the society just as judicious use of language could be a potent tool for resolving the crisis. Journal of Language and Literary Studies AJLLS, Department of English, Anambra State University Vol. 1, No 4, pp 10- 18
31Chukwu U. K. and Whulu, N. 2018. A Study of the Language of Students’ Political Posters in Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria” “A Study of the Language of Students’ Political Posters in Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria” This paper examines the use of language in students’ political posters in Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. It is with a view to ascertaining to what extent the techniques of the English language have been manipulated in the creation of the selected posters. This is against the background that language yields to influences from contexts of use. The study takes as its population, the political posters used by student politicians in the 2015 Student Union Elections in the university. However, the samples for the study are ten randomly selected posters. The method of selecting the samples analysed in the paper is purposive, as only samples that contain evidence of linguistic manipulations are selected. The paper adopted stylistics as its theoretical framework. This is against the background that stylistics offers instruments for the analysis of style in language use, where style refers to the correspondence between language as medium and message as content. In this manner, describing the extent to which such messages that derive from the students’ political interest motivate the manner of language use forms the purpose of the study. The conclusions of the paper include that both the political interests and the technological orientations of the students play vital roles in forming the mode of language use in the selected samples. The paper contends also that the manner of creativity in language use in the samples suggests a strong need for interdisciplinary tolerance in teaching and learning. Thus, it suggests the need for descriptive approach in the teaching of language, especially at the tertiary level, because it encourages creativity as opposed to prescriptivism that sticks to rigid rules, hence, evolving monotony and consequently loss of interest International Journal of Development and Management Review INJODEMAR Vol. 13, No. 1, Pp 140-148
32Chukwu, K. U., Chukwu, E. A. and Oko, C., 2017. “Dialectics of Contradiction in Mother Earth and Father Land: An Eco-Linguistic Examination of the Nigerian National Anthems” Essays on the gender question and its variant modes of existence abound in the different feminist ideologies that have been proposed by scholars. In ecological studies, which have gained great prominence in the latter part of the 20th century, proponents of gender-sensitive discourses have also evolved a brand of criticism identified as eco-feminism with its major thrust as the representation of human exploitation of nature as a correlate to the exploitation of the woman by the man. A step further in their argument is that the woman is closer to nature since both woman and nature are associated with nurture and care. However, one area of contradiction in all these efforts is in the symbolic use of land and earth, both of which have attracted male and female identities simultaneously. The burden of this paper lies, therefore, in the effort to critically evaluate the stereotype and insinuations which try to confine nature to one gender. From the linguistic perspective, the paper examined such gender stereotypes and insinuations which are culturally rooted, using the Nigerian National Anthems (the old and the new) as case studies. It examined the politics of gender dominance and its culturalisation, trans-culturalisation and decentralisation precept as embodied in the construction of these anthems. The paper adopted the descriptive method of analysis, relying on critical discourse analysis as its theoretical framework. The conclusion of the paper is that gender issues with their myths and archetypes have been culturally domesticated so much so that the struggle to redefine one in any culture ends up entrenching another. FUTO Journal Series (FUTOJNLS) Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp 225-234
33Chukwu, U. K., Nwulu, N., 2018. A study of the language of students’ political posters in the Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria This paper examines the use of language in students‟ political posters in the Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. It is with a view to ascertaining to what extent the techniques of the English language have been manipulated in the creation of the selected posters. This is against the background that language yields to influences from contexts of use. The study takes as its population, the political posters used by student politicians in the 2015 Student Union Elections in the university. However, the samples for the study are ten randomly selected posters. The method of selecting the samples analyzed in the paper is purposive, as only samples that contain evidence of linguistic manipulations are selected. The paper adopted stylistics as its theoretical framework. This is against the background that stylistics offers instruments for the analysis of style in language use, where style refers to the correspondence between language as medium and message as content. In this manner, describing the extent to which such messages that derive from the students‟ political interest motivate the manner of language use forms the purpose of the study. The conclusions of the paper include that both the political interests and the technological orientations of the students play vital roles in forming the mode of language use in the selected samples. The paper contends also that the manner of creativity in language use in the samples suggests a strong need for interdisciplinary tolerance in teaching and learning. Thus, it suggests the need for descriptive approach in the teaching of language, especially at the tertiary level, because it encourages creativity as opposed to prescriptivism that sticks to rigid rules, hence, evolving monotony and consequently loss of interest. Keywords: Language, Student, Politics, Poster International Journal of Development and Management Review (13)1, 140-148

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