Table of Content of the Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Erosion in South-Eastern Nigeria

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. Bonus, M., 1992. Soil Erosion under Traditional Farming Systems, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of  the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research  Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th  September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.01, volume 2(1);p.11.

  2. Grabs, W. E., 1992. Interdependence Analysis of Geological and Socio/Economic Variables As A Planning Tool For Soil Erosion Control In Southeastern Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.01, volume 2(1); p.12-13.


  3. Iwugo, K. O., 1992. Impact of Soil Erosion on Water Quality: New Dimensions Of An Age-Old Problem, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/WQ.01, volume 2(1); p.13-14.


  4. Onwuka, G.M and B.A Nwachukwu., 1992. Roadside Erosion In Southeastern, Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/ST.02, volume 2(1); p.14 -15.


  5. Edide, I.O., 1992. Investigation of Scour and Design of Erosion Prone Aprons – a Case Study, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/ST.03, volume 2(1); p.15.


  6. Ijioma, C.I., 1992. Engineering Non Structural Measures For Erodible Soil Stabilization In Southeastern Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/ST.04, volume 2(1); p.15-16.


  7. Ibiam, A. S.,1992. Geotechnical Properties And Measures For Erosion Control In Ebem Ohafia In Abia State, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/ST.05, volume 2(1); p.16.


  8. Agha, H. I., 1992. A Systems Cost Minimization Model For Erosion Control In Road Construction, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/ST.06, volume 2(1); p.17.


  9. Mungai, D. N. ,1992. The Potential Role Of Alley Cropping In Enhancing Sustainable Crop Production Under Tropical Semi-Arid Conditions, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.02, volume 2(1); p.18.


  10. Opara, C.C And N.A. Ozara.,1992. Multi-Storey Cropping System For Controlling Soil Erosion In Southeastern Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.03, volume 2(1); p.18-19.


  11. Atu, U.G., Okere, P.N., Palte, H., Osuji, G.E. And Mollema, A., 1992. Assessment Of Some Plants For Ground Covers In Erosion Control In Southeastern Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.04, volume 2(1); p.19.


  12. Okorie, P.E. , 1992. Plants For Erosion Control (A Silviculturist View Point), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.05, volume 2(1); p.20.


  13. Okereke, C.D.,1992. Effect of Certain Inorganic And Organic Matter On Soil Detachability, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.06, volume 2(1); p.20-21.


  14. Obiefuna, J.C and I.C. Onwueme., 1992. Mango Orchards For The Rehabilitation Of Reclaimed Gulleys  In The Tropics, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.07, volume 2(1); p.21.


  15. Aririatu, L.E And J. Iwuagwu., 1992.  Ecological Aspects Of Soil Disintegration, A Possible Biological Markup For Erosion Prone Zone, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.08, volume 2(1); p.22.


  16. Madubuike, C.N and G. O. Chukwuma., 1992. Relative Susceptibility Of Some Southeastern Nigerian Soils To Erosion By Water, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/FA.09, volume 2(1); p.23.


  17. Iwuagwu, C.J and Onu, N.N., 1992. Characterization Of Soils In The Erosion Prone Areas Of S.E Nigeria: A Case Study Of The Bende-Ameki Formation, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.002, volume 2(1); p.24.


  18. Onu, N.N and Ananaba, S.E., 1992. Gully Erosion And Neo-Tectonism In Southeastern Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.003, volume 2(1); p.24-25.


  19. Ozara, N.A., 1992. A Model For Designing Crop Management Systems For Humid Tropical Environments, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.004, volume 2(1); p.25.


  20. Nill, D., 1992. Determination Of Soil Erodibility For Soils Of Humid And Sub-humid West Africa, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.005, volume 2(1); p.24-25.


  21. Breuer, J., 1992. Inefficiency of Erosion Control Measures on Hard Setting Soils in Northern Cameroon, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/WQ.001, volume 2(1); p.26-27.


  22. Nwankwor, G.I. And C.J. Iwuagwu.,1992.  A Preliminary Evaluation Of Piping – Quick Condition Phenomena As Factors In Gully Expansion: Amucha Gully, Imo State, Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.006, volume 2(1); p.27-28.


  23. Vermeulen, H.R and T. H. M. Rientjes., 1992. Kinematic Modeling of Surface Runoff in a Geographic Information System, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/MD.007, volume 2(1); p.28.


  24. Deelstra, J., 1992. Methods to Measure Runoff, Erosion and Nutrient Loss from Agriculture, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/WQ.002, volume 2(1); p.29-30.


  25. Adeoye , A., 1992. Siltation Problems in the Kadawa Irrigation Scheme, Kano Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/WQ.002, volume 2(1); p.30.


  26. Nwachukwu, B.A., 1992. Application of the Universal Flow Diagram For Prediction Of Canal and Channel Erosion, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European  Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/WQ.004, volume 2(1); p.31.


  27. Jagtap, S.S., 1992. Development of Principles for Soil Erosion Mapping In Nigeria, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Erosion in Southeastern held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, under the auspices of the European Economic Council (EEC) Supported Erosion Research Project, Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), 20-25th  September, 1992, Paper ISE/SEN/92/SE.02, volume 2(1); p.31-32.

Continuation of the Table of Contents

 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE/SEN/92/FA.01

SOIL EROSION UNDER TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEMS

BONUS, M

Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast Ghana

ABSTRACT

The traditional farming system of shifting cultivation has become inefficient in recent times as a sustainable system because of the decreased fallow period from 10-6 years to 2-3 years due to increased population pressure on agricultural lands. The peasant cropping systems do have some aspect of soil conservation embodied in them. However, many research efforts have not been directed towards assessing the potential of these cropping systems as a soil conservation tools. Thus, there is a scarcity of information on erosion under the traditional farming systems. It is rather sad that many years of research efforts attempting to find replacements for the tradition farming systems have failed because the socio-economic environment in which the traditional farmer operates has not been considered as critical. Most of the so-called improved farming systems for soil conservation were developed without understanding the priorities of the traditional farmer. For instance, the no-tillage concept was known to the traditional farmer before research began to improve the technology. A question could be asked whether or not the traditional farmer has accepted the new concept of no-tillage at the expense of what he already knew. Definitely, the answer is negative. In this paper, an attempt has been made to provide some quantitative information on erosion under some traditional farming systems. Furthermore, some alternative technologies that could be useful in improving the traditional farming systems have been proposed. The data provided indicate that we have to begin with what the traditional farmer knows and try to help him improve his known technology rather than attempting to impose foreign technologies on him. Using this bottom-up approach, there is a likelihood that we would succeed in our search for sustainable farming systems to replace the traditional ones.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE/SEN/92/MD.01

INTERDEPENDENCE ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGICAL AND SOCIO/ECONOMIC VARIABLES AS A PLANNING TOOL FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL IN SE-NIGERIA

GRABS, W.E.

German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ),

Bergstr. 41­, D-55584 Bullay/Mosel, Federal Republic of Germany.

Abstract

The continued loss of farm land for food production due to severe sheet and gully erosion and the simultaneous increase of population in SE-Nigeria leads to the imminent danger of a geo-ecological collapse and severe nutritional consequences for large parts of the rural population. In the planning of soil erosion control measures, much emphasis has in past studies been laid on geological and geomorphologic variables, while socio-economic factors were largely neglected. While regression analysis has been widely used, the analysis of the interdependence of (static) geological / geomorphologic and (dynamic) socio-economic variables has rarely been conducted. These interdependencies however, are the effective control mechanisms that influence extent and activity of the dynamic soil erosion processes. In a case-study in Eastern Nigeria,  it is demonstrated how the analysis of interdependence between key variables that influence soil erosion can be used as an operational tool for the planning of measures against soil erosion. In a study region of 555sqkm which includes the Agulu – Nanka soil erosion area, principal component analysis of 10 key geological, geomorphologic and socio-economic variables has been carried out in a Geographical Information System (GIS) to determine the principal factors of soil erosion. It could be shown, that while soil erosion is closely linked to geomorphological variables on the Awka-Umuduru escarpment, the dynamic development processes of soil erosion are almost exclusively determined by human land management (farming systems, infrastructure, settlement patterns) with population pressure as a principal cause of further erosional deterioration of the environment. The computation of the factor-value for each GIS-cell allows the mapping of the severity of each factor in each GIS cell. On this basis, a base- map of factor values could be compiled that allows the priority-oriented, spatially adequate planning of strategic and tactical measures of control measures against soil erosion. A catalogue of principal control measures for each GIS-cell of the study area is presented on the basis of this planning map. Once the data has been entered in the GIS, this method allows an effective monitoring of the development of soil erosion and an appraisal of the effectiveness of control measures.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE/SEN 92/WQ.01

IMPACT OF SOIL EROSION ON WATER QUALITY: NEW DIMENSIONS OF AN AGE-OLD PROBLEM

IWUGO, K.O.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka Lagos Nigeria

Abstract

Land is a primary resource base for sustainable development and its abuse or degradation is not new in human history; the “dust bowl” in the United States in the 1930s and the more recent phenomenon of desertification of the Sahel are well documented cases of land degradation. Desertification and landslide are examples of extreme forms of land degradation and soil erosion is a major causative factor. Soil erosion which is the most basic type of land degradation involves the detachment, transportation and deposition of soil particles by agencies such as water, wind and gravity. Weathering (causing geologic erosion), tillage, trampling and various other biotic (e.g. deforestation) and industrial activities (causing accelerated erosion) are the main soil detachment processes. Surface runoff and wind are among the important transporting agents. Land and water bodies are the major receptors of the detached and transported soil particles. Considering the aforementioned mechanism of soil erosion in conjunction with the conventional hydrological cycle, the traditional cause – effect relationship between soil erosion and water quality (the physical, chemical and biological characteristics affecting water use) becomes easily discernible. Although tropical rivers are characterized by high sediment load (high concentration of suspended solids), which undoubtedly is attributable to the high erossivity of intense tropical precipitation, systematic scientific investigations and research on the direct effect of soil erosion on water quality are either totally lacking or very recent even on a global context. Systematic scientific investigation and research in a close area of “Storm Water Runoff quality and the Ecological effects upon receiving Waters” is also very recent and date back only to the mid 1970s. This paper presents an overview of the technical and socio-economic aspects of land degradation with special emphasis on soil erosion and then attempts to highlight the possible impacts of soil erosion on the quality of storm water and the receiving surface waters. The paper also suggests practical technical control measures for the quality of storm water runoffs; and also practical institutional framework for water quality management in the context of soil erosion in Nigeria.

Keywords: Land degradation; soil erosion; storm water quality; control measures; institutional framework.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/ST. 02

ROADSIDE EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

ONWUKA, G.M AND NWACHUKWU, B.A

Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Abstract

The study presented in this paper shows the seriousness of roadside erosion in south-eastern states of Nigeria. In the study, detailed mapping of eroded sites was conducted. The initial design was assessed for adequacy of anti-erosion measures and as built work was determined. It was consequently discovered that roadside erosion in the study areas has design, construction and maintenance components. The study identified three major classes of roadside erosion namely sheet, gully and rill, which occurred largely on the slopes. It was found that lack of maintenance after commissioning of a road project is one of the major causes of roadside erosion which has now resulted in the development of an erosion problem of disastrous proportion in this region. Other major causes of roadside erosion include lack of drainage at necessary length of the road, numerous entries/exits from the highways to villages and compounds and lack of vegetation on the shoulders and the slopes. In the concluding section, this paper advocates some roadside erosion control measures – both structural and non-structural. It also laid emphasis on seeding provision of drainage and limiting the access to highways.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/ST. 03

INVESTIGATION OF SCOUR AND DESIGN OF EROSION PRONE APRONS:

A CASE STUDY

EDIDE, I.O.

Director for Rural Development, Office of the Governor, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Abstract

In the cause of engineering supervision for Cross River State Directorate of Rural Development (CRS DFRRI), it was observed that all aspects of erosion control have to be addressed in conformity with the soil – structure system of DFRRI Landing Jetties. This paper outlines the corresponding settling paths (CSP) approach in the investigation of scour along the Henshaw Town Beach, where an open landing jetty facility is under construction for cross River State DFRRI. Also an engineering design to ascertain erosion – prone aprons is included.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/ST. 04

ENGINEERING NON STRUCTURAL MEASURES FOR ERODIBLE SOIL STABILIZATION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

IJIOMA, C.I.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

 

Abstract

In studies to determine the potential for the use of locally produced agricultural by products in stabilization of erodible soils in Southeastern Nigeria, Palm Kernel Shell Ash (PKSA) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) were mixed with the tropical lateritic soils and subjected to various relevant geotechnical tests required in the preparation of earthworks and flood water courses. The laboratory and field tests results showed that the PKSA and RHA improved the physical behavior of the soils in terms of rate of settlement and soil loss during overland flow. From the study, it was evident that the two agricultural by products could be used as substitutes for imported lime used in soil stabilization in Nigeria. The agricultural by products could be used in minimizing the scouring tendency of soils at culvert coutlets or at downstream of check dams.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/ST. 05

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES AND MEASURES FOR EROSION CONTROL IN EBEM OHAFIA IN ABIA STATE

IBIAM, A.S.

School of Environmental Studies, Abia State University Uturu, Okigwe

Abstract

Settlement not properly located, designed, constructed or maintained are subject to serious erosion and other environmental hazards. The geotechnical properties and measures for erosion control in Ebem Ohafia are studied and recommendations preferred. Field studies revealed that the soil varies from sand, silt, clay to gravel. The soil contains calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. The percentage organic carbon, organic matter and gravel is very low while the total weights of red soil and white soil are very high. The implications of these findings to soil erosion and control measures are also discussed. Serious erosion results in unsightly conditions and increased maintenance costs and is a safety hazard. The control of soil erosion and runoff is basic to the protection of Ebem Ohafia town. The success of the erosion control measures recommended is very necessary because of the many hectares of land now covered by the erosion menace.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/ST. 06

A SYSTEMS COST MINIMIZATION MODEL FOR EROSION CONTROL IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

AGHA, H.I.

School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri

 

Abstract

During the last two decades, the Nigerian construction industry witnessed unprecedented activity in the area of highway development. However, because the erosion control aspects of these roads were either not considered at all in their design and construction, or were only partially considered, these road works have opened up many erosion sites. Many of these sites have grown into gullies of such magnitude that the affected areas are now designated ecological disaster areas. This paper assesses the various factors which contribute to erosion development if not adequately provided for during new road construction. The factors include: total run-off from a given catchment area, side drains of appropriate capacity to transport the run-off to safe spots in valley areas or across highways through culverts or bridge structures, road pavements of appropriate widths and strength, and the planting of grass on all exposed surfaces. The inter-relationship among the above factors are reflected in a linear programming systems model which seeks to minimize the cost of erosion control structures during road construction. Each of the factors in represented along with its cost coefficient in a linear objective function. The function is then minimized subject to certain constraints. The constraints are inequalities based on highway design and construction code requirements, the amount  of fill, total run-off into the valley area being designed for, the necessary length and capacity of drainage structures, and the specified vertical alignment for the given road segment. The linear programming system’s model is solved using Dantzig’s simplex algorithm. The set of linear constraint boundary-functions is viewed as forming a multidimensional simplex or convex cone which encloses the entire set of feasible solutions. The values of the variables which results from the simplex solution are then substituted in the objective function to determine the minimum cost of the erosion control structures which must be in place to check erosion.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA. 02

THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF ALLEY CROPPING IN ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION UNDER TROPICAL SEMI-ARID CONDITIONS

MUNGAI, D. N.

Department of Geography, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197 Nairobi, Kenya

 

Abstract

Recent micro-meteorological research aimed at assessing the potentials of alley cropping under semi-arid conditions in Eastern Kenya is described. The results that were obtained are presented and discussed. The role of agro-forestry in soil protection from water and /or wind particularly on sloping lands under semi-arid conditions is highlighted.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA. 03

MULTI-STOREY CROPPING SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING SOIL EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

OPARA, C.C. AND N.A. OZARA

Department of Crop Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State

 

Abstract

Soil erosion in form of splash, sheet, rill and gully has become a major feature of the Southeastern Nigerian Landscape. Control measures include agronomic, soil management and mechanical methods. However, agronomic measures which involve the use of vegetative cover in protecting the soil have often been neglected due to may be doubts about their relevance and efficacy. This may be true especially when they are not well designed and executed. This paper examines the attributes of multi-storey cropping as they relate to soil erosion control in Southeastern Nigeria. Some field data on arable multi-storey cropping in Southeastern Nigeria are presented. Other soil management practices for effective soil conservation are proposed and recommendations made.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA. 04

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PLANTS FOR GROUND COVERS IN EROSION CONTROL IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

ATU, U.G., OKERE, P.N., PALTE, H., OSUJI, G.E. AND MOLLEMA, A.

Erosion Research Centre, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Abstract

Adequate ground cover by plants effectively reduces soil erosion especially on sloping lands. Giant star grass, guinea grass, pueraria and style consistently maintained 100% ground cover after one year of establishment; re-growth was however fast in guinea grass and giant star grass after bush burning. Soil loss in tones per hectare was for guinea grass, 26.9; giant star grass, 40.0; centrosema, 96.9; mucuna 75.0; stylo 49.4 and pueraria 37.5. Of all the plants, stylo remarkably suppressed plant parasitic nematode population from the soil, while pueraria trippled the pre-plant population. Giant star grass was resistant to termite attack during the dry season, followed by guinea grass and stylo.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA. 05

PLANTS FOR EROSION CONTROL (A SILVICULTURIST VIEW POINT)

OKORIE, P.E.

Abstract

Interdisciplinary approach, especially the combination of engineering and afforestation methods is necessary for the control of advanced soil erosion. Reclamation of sheet erosion sites as well as protection of the environment can be accomplished mainly through the provision of vegetation cover. Choice of suitable available plant species is critical for the success of these biological methods. Past and present research efforts have been directed towards the choice of suitable indigenous and exotic tree and non-tree species to suit the wide range of climates, terrains, and soil types found in different parts of Nigeria. This paper outlines the characteristics of plant species used for erosion control, and discusses the silvicultural implications of especially, the exotics Pinus caribaea Ex Honduras, Gmelina arboea Roxb and Eucalytus sp. currently in use in Nigeria. The merits and demerits of exotics and indigenous species are also discussed.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA. 06

EFFECT OF CERTAIN INORGANIC AND ORGANIC MATTER ON SOIL DETACHABILITY

OKEREKE, C.D

Project Manager, Gully Erosion Afforestation Project Forestry Research Institute, P.M.B 01097, ENUGU

 

Abstract

Soil samples collected from Osina, Orlu and Urualla areas were characterized. 2 kg weight of soil samples from the 3 locations were each given five different treatments with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% proportions by weight of rice husk (RH), poultry manure (PM) and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer, respectively. After each of the treatments (mixing soil with proportions of additive), the treated soils were put in separate bowls and allowed to stay at room temperature for six weeks. Thereafter, the PH, organic matter content, direct shear strength and soil splash tests were carried out on each treated soil using standard methods. The result showed that the soils are acidic and the addition of poultry droppings (manure) increased the soils PH by 200% whereas for same percentage treatment, rice husk and NPK fertilizer increased the soil PH by smaller magnitude of 20-60%. PM treatment at 95% confidence level availed the highest organic matter followed by RH and NPK in that order. The highest soil detachability measured in terms of soil splash was observed in the RH treatment followed by PM and NPK. 5% additive treatment is the optimum for least detachability (splash). The discussions on the various trends are presented.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA.07

MANGO ORCHARDS FOR THE REHABILITATION OF RECLAIMED GULLEYS IN THE TROPICS

 

OBIEFUNA, J.C.  AND I.C. ONWUEME

Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Abstract

Mango (Mangifera indica cv lindissina) was established on Lake Nwaebere Campus of the Erosion Research Centre project site. The establishment, growth, and canopy development and fruit yield of the trees were monitored annually while soil loss and litter build up were monitored at the beginning and end of each rainy season for six consecutive years using graduated spikes. The result show that loss reduced with time as canopy litter drop increased. The soil organic matter also increased, while weed population under the mango canopy reduced. Several other biological activities were stimulated which may have collectively contributed to the soil stabilization and increased soil fertility.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA.08

 

ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL DISINTEGRATION, A POSSIBLE BIOLOGICAL MARKER FOR EROSION PRONE ZONE

ARIRIATU, L.E.

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

and

C. J. IWUAGWU

Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Abstract

The biomass and the standing crop of Okwudor gully erosion site (Benin Formation), the Umuna Sandstone Member of Imo Shale Formation, and a sandstone layer of the Bende-Ameki Formation were determined by standard ecological and microbiological methods. Preliminary results show very little biological activity and low energy level amongst the various trophic levels in the various habitats examined. The average number of micro-organisms in the profile of the adjoining soil at Okwudor is 4.9 x 109/g for bacteria and 3.7 x 104/g for fungi, whereas the Okwudor gully had 3.0 x 104 / g, and both sandstone units (Umuna sand-stone and Bende-Ameki Formation) had an average of 3.0 x 103/g for bacteria. Fungi was absent in both the gully and the sandstone deposits whereas algae averaged 6.37Kcal/g dry weight in the sandstone units but was absent in the Okwudor gully. Standing biomass represents stored energy in a habitat or ecosystem. The low biomass recorded in the Okwudor gully and the two sandstone units examined indicate low gross results indicate low gross primary productivity. The results indicate that low stored energy levels and low gross primary productivity in the habitats are some of the biological variables implicated in soil disintegration and erosion.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/FA.09

RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIAN SOILS TO EROSION BY WATER

MADUBUIKE, C.N.

Department of Agricultural Engineering , Erosion Research Centre, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

and

G. O. CHUKWUMA

Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

Abstract

In-situ rainfall simulator runs were carried out on 15 soil groups located in various parts of southeastern Nigeria. The tests were carried out under dry, wet, and saturated soil conditions, each at rainfall intensities of 90, 60 and 40mm/hr. The resulting soil losses were analyzed and the relative susceptibility of the various soil groups to erosion by water determined based on the average rate of soil loss. The results show the soil group susceptibility in decreasing order to be: Eutric Nitosol (Typic Tropudalfs); Ferric Acrisol (Typic Tropudult); Orthic Acrisol ( Typic Hapludult); Dystric Cambisol (Typic Dystropepts); Dystric Gleysol (Typic Tropaquept); Dystric Nitosol (Typic Paleudult); Dystric  Nitosol (Arenic Paleudult); Eutric Gleysol (Typic Tropaquept); Plinthinc Acrisol (Plinthic Tropudult); Eutric Fluvisol (Eutric Tropofluents); Dystric Fluvisol (Typic Tropudult); Dystric Cambisol (Typic Dystropepts); Dystric Nitosol(Gross Arenic Paleudult);Dystric Cambisol(Typic Dystropepts) and Dystric Nitosol(Aquic Paleudult).  Result such as this will prove very useful in landuse planning and policy formulation in erosion prevention and control strategies in the region studied.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/MD.002

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS IN THE EROSION PRONE AREAS OF SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE BENDE-AMEKI FORMATION

IWUAGWU, C.J. AND ONU, N.N

Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State Nigeria

Abstract

Geological and geophysical studies were carried out on the sediments of the Bende-Ameki Formation of the Southeastern Nigeria. The objective was to determine the extent to which these soils are susceptible to erosion. Our approach was to determine the petrophysical characteristics of the sediments and to locate possible fractures or faults zones and relate these to gully initiation. Results indicate that soils of high porosity and permeability which are lacking in cementing materials are underlain by clays which confine water. The implications of these on gully initiation are discussed in this paper.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/MD.003

GULLY EROSION AND NEO-TECTONISM IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

ONU, N.N AND ANANABA, S.E.

Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria

Abstract

This paper attempts to relate major gully erosion sites in parts of Southeastern Nigeria to mapped tectonic trends in these areas. A base map of lineaments has been produced at a scale of 1:50,000 and the known erosion sites approximately located. Limited geophysical survey has been carried out at selected sites in Umuagor Urualla, Okwudor and Ihiagwa, in order to confirm the mapped tectonic trends. The results show that although the gully erosion in parts of S.E Nigeria are very often associated with cultural activities (exogenic processes), the very deep gullies which almost defy all control measures seem to occur along major fracture zones in these areas. Their increasing intensities seem to suggest that these ancient fracture zones are indeed being reactivated; a sort of neo-tectonism. The implications of this suspicion on gully control are hereby discussed.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/MD.004

A MODEL FOR DESIGNING CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENTS

OZARA, N.A

Department of Crop Production and Soil Science,  Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri.

Abstract

A model is presented that meets some of the soil conservation needs of the humid tropical environment. The model addresses the problems of rainfall and soil data scarcity as well as farming peculiarities of the region. The model AMELUP – is distributed, event based and is based on the agronomic principles of erosion control and soil conservation. It is applicable to farm fields, erosion plots and small catchments. The major components simulated include hydrology, soil erosion and crop / residue management systems. A sensitivity analysis of the vegetative parameters showed that soil loss and runoff are sensitive to the amount of surface biomass, canopy density and depth of rooting of previous crop. Some planning scenarios with AMELUP using hypothetical conditions are presented to demonstrate the rationality of the structure and capabilities of the model.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/MD.05

DETERMINTATION OF SOIL ERODIBILITY FOR SOILS OF HUMID AND SUB-HUMID WEST AFRICA

DIETER NILL

IITA/GTZ/IRA/TU-Munich Project ‘Soil erosion studies in the humid tropics’

Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde Technische Universitat Munchen D-8050 Freising/Weihenstephan

Abstract

K factors of representative soils have been measured under natural and simulated rainfall conditions in Cameroon and Nigeria for several years. Calibration plots for the comparison of the two methods showed a good agreement between K factors measured under natural and simulated rainfall conditions. Long-term K factor variation and estimations for the residuals sub-factor of the USLE for humid savanna and rain forest are presented. The use of soil properties for the determination of K factors is discussed.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/WQ

INEFFICIENCY OF EROSION CONTROL MEASURES ON HARDSETTING SOILS IN NORTHERN CAMEROON

BREUER JORN

Lehrstuhl fur bodenkude technische univeristat munchen d- 8050 freising / weihenstephan

and

DIETER NILL

Institute de recherché agronomique Centre National de Sols Maroua, Cameroon

Abstract

Hardsetting soils occurring in northern Cameroon have a very low structural stability and water permeability and are hard and structure less when dry. They are classified as Alfisols and Inceptisols with aquic soil moisture regime and occur in low (alluvial) landscape positions. The profiles show bleached topsoils, iron and manganese mottling in the subsoils and an abrupt clay increase with depth. Agricultural use of hardsetting soils is impeded by low infiltration, soil erosion and soil hardening causing poor germination. Surface applied measures to improve soil infiltrability (mulching, CaS04) were effective on crusting soils but not effective on hardsetting soils. It is postulated that the poor aggregation due to lack of stabilizing soil components (organic matter, (Iron)Fe oxides ) leads to slaking of the soils during the rainy season followed by setting and hardening on drying. In research and extension projects, hardsetting soils should be mapped as an own category based on their physical behavior independent of the soil classification system. Land use and re-cultivation systems for hardsetting areas have to be developed.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/MD.06

 

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF PIPING – QUICK CONDITION PHENOMENA AS FACTORS IN GULLY EXPANSION: AMUCHA GULLY, IMO STATE, NIGERIA

 

NWANKWOR, G.I AND C.J. IWUAGWU

Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

 

Abstract

Hydraulic head gradients were determined from a network of piezometers installed along the groundwater flow system at Amucha, in the River Njaba drainage basin for purposes of evaluating the importance of seepage forces in the gullying process. The hydraulic gradient was between 0.15 and 0.19 but increased to 0.35 after a rainfall event, thus giving a seepage force magnitude of 3.43 KN. On the basis of measured void ratio values that ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, and an assumed but typical particle density of 2.65 Mg/m3, the critical hydraulic gradient required to initiate piping / quick condition is 0.8 (or 7.8 KN). This is much higher than the calculated head gradient, and would seem to suggest that piping and quick conditions are not important in the gullying process. However, the near three –fold increase in the hydraulic head gradient after just one rainfall event would seem to suggest that critical gradients may readily be attained during the rainy season when rainfall is more frequent and intense.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/MD.07

KINEMATIC MODELING OF SURFACE RUNOFF IN A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

VERMELEN, H.R. AND RIENTJES, T.H.M

Delft University Of Technology, The Netherlands

Abstract

River basin management and the design of various water and erosion control works require proper estimates of over land flow and river flow as generated by heavy rainstorms. A pronounced example is the compilation of erosion hazards maps. Frequently, direct flow measurements are scarce if not absent, urging for indirect methods to assess the magnitude of floods using only readily available data such as rainfall and topographic maps, aerial photographs or remote sensing images. This paper deals with the application of the kinematic wave equation to the modeling of overland flow at pixel level in a Geographic Information System with altitude levels and rainstorm patterns as basic input and with the subsequent routing of flow to the points of interest at the considered river or gully. Since the model in its present stage does not account for the effect of other physiographic features on the runoff process, its use is restricted to floods from hilly or mountainous watersheds. On a regional scale, where physiographic properties (e.g. soil types and vegetation) and cultural practices (e.g. agricultural) can be regarded as uniform, the adoption of a single calibration parameter suffices to obtain realistic results.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/WQ.02

METHODS TO MEASURE RUNOFF, EROSION AND NUTRIENT LOSS FROM AGRICULTURE

 

DEELSTRA,J AND QYGARDEN, L

Jordforsk N-1432 As, Norway

 

Abstract

Jordforsk is a research institute in Norway. One of our main working areas is environmental problems related to agriculture. To quantify the amount of erosion and nutrient loss from agricultural lands, Jordforsk is carrying out measurements from a large catchment area of 700 ha. Inside this area, we have selected a smaller catchment area of 10 ha. Inside this area, 4 plots (USLE-type) of 125 m2 have been established. At each level we use a different combination of discharge measurement and water sampling. Different systems can be used to measure runoff, erosion and nutrient losses from small USLE-type plots. A problem with conventional discharge measurement structures is their inability to measure small discharge. At the same time there are often sedimentation problems in the measurement structure before water samples had been taken. Therefore, a tipping-bucket was chosen for these types of measurements. The tipping bucket operates as a discharge measurement structure. Every 10 minutes, the number of tips is stored automatically using a data-logger. As a back-up, a mechanical counter is installed. A simple arrangement is constructed to collect an aliquot sample of the runoff water. For small catchment areas a RBC-flume is used. One of the reasons for choosing this flume is its capability of transporting sediments. There will be less sedimentation problems in the measuring structure compared to e.g. a V-notch. Water levels are automatically recorded, using a float connected to a pot meter. A data logger is used for storing data. At the same time, the logger is programmed to steer water sampling. Recorded water levels are transferred into discharge values. These are used for calculating the amount of water passed. Whenever the amount of water outflow becomes bigger than a certain preset volume, a signal is sent to a water sampler. A magnetic valve, fixed to the flume, is used as a steering unit for the water sampler. The opening time of the sampler is automatically adjusted as a function of the water level in the flume. The samplet water is stored in a plastic container. In this way an aliquot sample is obtained from runoff water. The whole system is operated by a 12 V-battery (DC), which will in case of no discharge is dormant to save battery power. Besides automatic recording, a mechanical recorder is used as a back-up for water level recording.  For large catchment areas a Crump-weir is used. The characteristics concerning sediments are the same as for the RBC-flume. The system for measuring discharge and water sampling is the same as for small catchments.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/WQ.03

SILTATION PROBLEMS IN THE KADAWA IRRIGATION SCHEME, KANO.

ADEWALE ADEOYE

Department Of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

Abstract

Siltation is the biggest single physical problem afflicting the operation and performance of many irrigation systems throughout the world. Silt introduced by the water supply builds up on canal beds causing water levels to rise and conveyance capacities to decrease. It has been identified that the data on sediment discharge on which the design of most irrigation canals in the savanna of Northern Nigeria are based, are generally scanty and inconsistent. In this paper, the results of a survey of the Kadawa irrigation system in Kano State is presented and analyzed. It was found that the hydraulic efficiency of the canals has dropped to about 62% from their design value due to siltation and weed infestation. Also the Manning’s Roughness Coefficient and other channel properties have changed adversely. Structural, maintenance, and non- structural measures to revamp the scheme are described. A programme of data collection for improvements in the design of fluvial channels in the area is prescribed.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/WQ.04

APPLICATION OF THE UNIVERSAL FLOW DIAGRAM FOR PREDICTION OF CANAL AND CHANNEL EROSION

NWACHUKWU, B.A

Department Of Civil Engineering, Federal University Of Technology, Owerri

 

Abstract

The universal flow diagram (UF-diagram) first proposed in 1975 has many applications in the study of channel processes. The diagram developed using dimensional analysis and regression techniques involves five dimensionless flow parameters showing the inter-relationship of the discharge intensity, flow depth, bed materials size and discharge, and channel slope for mobile boundary channels. In this paper, the development of the UF-diagram is presented. Through worked examples, the application of the UF-diagram for prediction of channel changes caused by typical effects of urban development schemes and civil engineering works is illustrated. Predication of the long term effects of these works is considered a necessary first step for the design of economical channel control structures.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EROSION IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA HELD AT THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF  THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL (EEC) SUPPORTED EROSION RESEARCH PROJECT, INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES), 20-25TH ., 1992.


ISE / SEN 92/SE.02

DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPLES FOR SOIL EROSION MAPPING IN NIGERIA

JAGTAP, S.S.

International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture, Oyo Road Ibadan, Nigeria

Abstract

Soil erosion research in different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria over the past 20 years has led to the development of indices and equations for quantitative assessment of soil loss from agricultural fields. Information from well conducted researches ought to be applied in creating awareness for soil conservation. This preliminary study examines the possibility of generating data for areas where soil erosion research has not been carried out in Nigeria by developing equations and methods through which existing data and information could be extrapolated and subsequently used for soil erosion mapping. Soil erosion mapping would be done using geographic information system. By so doing, it is hoped that user-friendly information would be provided and this would lead to increased awareness for soil conservation.