Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Biotechnology

Dr. Angela C. Udebuani

Dr Angela Chika Udebuani

Associate Professor

Head of the Department of Biotechnology

BSc., MSc., MSc., PhD,


Dr. Angela Udebuani is an Associate Professor and currently the Head of the Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria. She obtained her Bachelor of Science degree (BSc.) Honors in Zoology, from Ambrose Alli University (then Edo State University) in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria, a Master’s degree (MSc), in Biochemistry (Molecular Biology) from the University of Nigeria Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria. And another Masters and Doctor of Philosophy degrees (MSc. and Ph.D.). in Environmental Health Biology from the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. As environmental health and molecular biologist, Angela specializes in environmental toxicology. With that, she regularly monitors and measures emerging pollutants and their impact on the environment (aquatic and terrestrial environment). Her masters and doctorate thesis assessed crude oil and hydrocarbon pollution, in the terrestrial environmental matrix, the impact of herbicides on the genomic DNA of a non-target organism striving where it is applied. Her further research study used locally affordable materials to remediate the genotoxic substances in the environment. In addition to her academic degrees and her desire to pursue/perfect her research skills she has regularly attended training programs and acquired certificates in international training courses, such as; molecular biology and biotechnology techniques (IVRI India), food and environmental safety assessment of genetically modified animals (Argentina) (ICGEB, Buenos Aires City Argentina), Bioinformatics (insilico drug design and Bioprograming) (IBI Solution Chandigra India), Testing methods and evaluation of endocrine activities in the environmental matrix (Utah USA), Statistical methods in ecotoxicology using R program (Vancouver, Canada), Genetically and molecular biology approaches, control in environmental pollution management (Ibadan Nigeria) and ecological risk assessment and management methods (Berlin Germany/Langebaan South Africa). Her recently acquired skill, “Ecological Risk Assessment methods” was the reason she went on a research visit to the Faculty of Applied Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa. where, she and her research team, assessed the ecological risk of discharge of emerging pollutants such as veterinary pharmaceuticals in the freshwater ecosystem. Angela’s research efforts have confirmed the occurrence and negative impact of toxicants such as pesticides (glyphosate), endocrine disrupting compounds, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and active pharmaceutical substances in different environmental matrices. Dr. Angela Udebuani has authored books in her field of study and many of her research papers have been published in reputable and accredited peer-review journals. Her Google scholar citation is 255 with a high-index factor of 8. She has had opportunities to serve in many Departmental and School of Science committees and also took part in the successful planning of conferences and workshops as a member of the local organizing committee and chairperson of some committees. Angela is a member of many professional organizations. She is a Council member of the African geographical unit of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC- Africa). She was the manager of SETAC West and Central Africa (2015 – 2017) and presently the Secretary, SETAC Africa. In 2017, she co-hosted SETAC African Biennial meeting in Calabar Nigeria. In SETAC Global community, she is a member of the Global Science Advisory committee, Global Ecological Risk Advisory committee. Other professional organizations to which she belongs include: Organization for women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), Research for Life Community (Research4Life), Biotechnology Society of Nigeria (BSN), Foundation for African Development through International Biotechnology (FADIB). A Licensed Environmental Health Officer of Nigeria (Sanitarian) and an Associate Member Chartered Institute of Environmental Health. Dr. Angela Udebuani is a caring mother of six, who believes that she cannot change the direction of the wind, but can adjust her sail to always reach her destination through Christ who strengthens her, doing whatever that is true, noble, right, pure, lovely and admirable.


List of Academic & Professional Qualifications with dates

  • PhD. Environmental Health Biology, (2011)
  • M.Sc. Environmental Health Biology, (2002)
  • M.Sc. Molecular Biology /Biochemistry, (2013)
  • B.Sc (Hons) Zoology (1993)


Professional Qualifications

  1. Ecological and human risk assessment training workshop held at Cape Town South Africa. May 6 – 8, 2019.
  2. One-day Professional Training course on The Endocrine System: Global Perspectives on Testing Methods and Evaluation of Endocrine Activity. Held on Sunday 1st of November, 2015, at Salt Palace Convention Center in Salt Lake City, Utah.
  3. Two-days professional training on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) held on the 5th and 7th of October 2015 at Langebaan South Africa.
  4. One-day Professional Training course on “Statistical Methods in Ecotoxicology Using R held at Vancouver Convention Center Waterfront Vancouver, Sunday 9th of November 2014.
  5. A short course on ecological risk assessment and management held in the frame of SETAC Europe 22nd Annual meeting/6th World meeting at Berlin Germany 20 – 24 May 2012
  6. ICGEB First International Workshop on the food and Environmental Safety Assessment of genetically modified animals. Held from 5 – 9th September 2011 at Buenos Aires City, Argentina.
  7. E-Resource National Leaders Course Training of Trainer and Outreach Center for Africa (ITOCA) held at Bayero University Kano (2010)
  8. Genetically and Molecular Biology Approaches, Control and Environmental pollution management in Nigeria held at University of Ibadan (2009)
  9. Molecular marker and their application in Tropical Agriculture for Breeder. Agronomist, Pathologist, Biotechnologist and biometricians held at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan (2008).
  10. Intensive training on a project titled introduction of Bio programming (PERL, HTML and CGI) and lnsilico drug design India Held in IBI SOLUTION Panchukula Chandigra India (2008).
  11. International Training Course on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Techniques in animal research held at Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) Izatnagar, India (2005).

List of Honours/Merit Awards received

  1. A Carbon Neutral Award for supporting projects to reduce carbon footprints By University of Ghana Legon Accra Ghana
  2. Fellowship award from Society of Environmental and Public Health of Nigeria (SEPHON)
  3. Award of Excellence By the Presbyterian Church of Nigeria Owerri Presbytery Imo State

Membership of Professional Bodies

  1. Member, Organization of Women in Science in Developing World (OWSD)
Member, Biotechnology Society of Nigeria (BSN)

  3. Member, Foundation for African Development through International Biotechnology (FADIB).
  4. Member, Research for Life Community (Research4Life)
  5. Member, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Globe
  6. Member, SETAC Global Science Advisory Committee
  7. Member, SETAC Ecological Risk Assessment Advisory Committee
  8. Manager West and Central African regional Assemble of Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2015 – 2017
  9. Council Member and Secretary African Regional Assemble of Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2017 – Till Date
  10. Licensed Member, Environmental Health Officer of Nigeria (Sanitarian)
  11. Fellow of Environmental and Public Health Organization of Nigeria



Course Code and Courses assigned to teach

  • BIO 102                       Biology for Agriculture and Biological Science
  • BTC 204                      Genetics  1
  • BTC 405                      Agricultural Biotechnology
  • BTC 411                      Technical Writing and Presentation
  • BTC 409                      Environmental Biotechnology
  • BTC 419                      Genetics 11
  • BTC 503                      Industrial Biotechnology
  • BTC 505                      Seminar in Biotechnology
  • BTC 507                      Research Project Biotechnology 1
  • BTC 508                      Research Project Biotechnology
  • BTC 511                      Bioresource Management
  • BTC 520                      Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • BTC 805                      Advanced Molecular Biology
  • BTC 809                      Advanced Genetic Engineering
  • BTC 810                      Research Techniques in Biotechnology
  • BTC 814                      Environmental Biotechnology
  • BTC 822                      Pest and Pesticides
  • BTC 823                      Environmental Pollution and Health Biology
  • BTC 911                      Environmental Pollution and Health Biology
  • BTC 819                      Laboratory Organization and Management
  • BTC 902                      Bioremediation

Work Experience

  • National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) City Veterinary Clinic Owerri (1993-1994)
  • Assistant Lecturer: Department of Molecular Biology Federal University of Technology Owerri February 2005-2008
  • Lecturer 11: Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, October 2008-2011
  • Lecturer 1: Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, October 2011-2014
  • Senior Lecturer: Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, October 2014- 2017
  • Associate Professor: Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, October 2017- 2020
  • Departmental Co-ordinator Centre for Human Resource Development (CHRD) 2016-17
  • Academic Adviser, Department of Biotechnology Federal University of Technology Owerri 2007-2012.
  • Timetable Officer, Department of Molecular Biology, Federal University of Technology Owerri 2005 -2006
  • Research Affiliate Institute of Environmental Health and Environmental Justices. Federal University of Technology Owerri Imo State Nigeria 2016 –till date.


Research Experience

  • Research Visitor to Cape Peninsula University of Technology Cape Town South Africa 2019
  • Ag. Head of Department; Department of Biotechnology Federal University of Technology Owerri, 2020 – till Date

Research Interest

  • Environmental Biotechnology
  • Ecotoxicology/Ecological Risk Assessment
  • Environmental Management/ Biosafety


Area of Research Specialization

  • Environmental Toxicology/Management

List of peer-reviewed Publications

  1. Obasi K O., Sunday I E., Udebuani A. C. and Okereke J N. (2020)Assessment of Benzene, Toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in water and sediments from Itu, Ibeno and Ibaka River estuary of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research 9(4) 1352 – 1362
  2. Obinwanne, C. C., Okereke, J. N., Udebuani, A. C., Ozoh, P.T.E., Alisi, C. S.  and Opara, F. N. (2019) Some Occupational and Ecotoxicological hazards associated with air quality road construction industry, Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. FUTOJNLS 5(2); 174 – 200
  3. Udebuani A. C., Ezeji E. U. Agu R. C. Onwurah I. N. E. and Abara P. N. (2018) Bioavailability and Genotoxicity of glyphosate treated soil on Archachatina marginataNature and Science 16(7): 119 – 125.
  4. Obinwanne C. C. Ozoh P. T. E., Opara F. N., Okereke J. N. and Udebuani A. C. (2018), Occupational and Ecotoxicological hazards associated with Ishiagu Quarry industry in South-Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Innovative Research and Development 7(7): 295 – 302.
  5. Udebuani A. C. Nwajiobi I, J., Okoli I.C. and Ozoh P.T. E (2018) Proximate and elemental compositions of animal dung collected from Owerri, Southeast Nigeria. Proc. 43rd Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 18th -22nd 2018, FUT Owerri
  6. Nwajiobi I J. and Udebuani A. C (2018) Assessment of liveability and the genotoxic response of edible snail Pachymelania aurita on exposure to an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Proc. 43rd Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 18th -22nd 2018, FUT Owerri
  7. Udebuani A. C. Nwajiobi I, J., Okoli I.C. and Ozoh P.T. E (2018) Microbial loads and profiles of poultry, cattle and pig dung produced in Owerri, Southeast Nigeria. Proc. 43rd Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 18th -22nd 2018, FUT Owerri
  8. Abara P.N, Adjero L. A., Ezea O. C. Udebuani A. C and Nnamani C. J (2018). The genotoxic potential of the Cypermethrin-based pesticide best on African catfish Clarias garipinus IDOSR Journal of Science and Technology, 3(1): 1-8.
  9. Udebuani A. C., Otitoju O., Abara P. N., Eze E C. and Duru M C (2017), Cytotoxicological Response of Zea mays to crude oil: The ecological effects of exposure to contaminants. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 16(3): 1-9
  10. Otitoju O., Udebuani A. C., Ebulue M. M and Onwurah I. N. (2017) Enzyme-based assay for toxicological evaluation of soil ecosystem polluted with spent engine oil. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International 11(3) 1-13.
  11. Ezeji E. U. Onwurah I. N. E. and Udebuani A. C (2016) DNA-Based assay for pesticides in the environment. International Journal of Sciences. 5(07): 29 – 30.
  12. Okereke, J. N., Udebuani, A. C., Ukaoma, A. A., Obasi, K. O., Ogidi, O. I., Onyekachi, U. C. (2016) Performance of Zea mays on Soil contaminated with petroleum (Oily) Sludge. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advance Studies 3(10): 159 – 166.
  13. Udebuani A.C. Otitoju O. Onweremadu E. U Abara P N and Alaekwe C. K (2016). Climate Change impact and carbon sequestration of agricultural soil around automobile service centre in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 11(1): 14 – 18.
  14. Udebuani A C., Ofoma A. O., Otitoju O Abara P. N Ezejiofor T. N and Chukwuma M C (2016). Cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of pharmaceutical effluent from KP Pharmaceutical industry, Nigeria Science. American Chemical Science Journal 16(2): 1 – 10.
  15. Obasi K O Emeahara, U. V Okereke J. N Udebuani A. C. and Oparaigbo M. I (2016) The antimicrobial effects of local spices: Onions (Allium cepa), Garlic (Allium sativum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Pepper (Piper guineense) on selected pathogenic bacteria and fungus. The International Journal of Science and Technolledge 4(2): 84 -96.
  16. Allison L. N, Dike K. S. Udebuani A. C. and Amadi A. N. C. (2016) Assessment of antifungal activities of Carica papaya Latex and aqueous extract of Allium sativum against Mycodeteriogen of tomato and orange juice. Journal of Advances in Food Science and Technology 25-27.
  17. Ezeji E U., Udebuani A. C., Okereke J. Anyado-Nwadike S., Onwurah I. N. E. and Obasi K. (2016). Effect of dichlorvos on reproductive performance of laying hens. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 8(4): 34 – 37.
  18. Nwaiwu O, Ibekwe V. I. Amadi S. E. Udebuani A. C., Nwanebu F. C., Oguoma O. I and Nnokwe J. C. (2016) Evaluation of fermentation products palm wine yeasts and role Sacoglottis gabonensis supplement on products abundance. Beverages. 2: 9.
  19. Udebuani A. C., Obasi K O Ezeji E. U. Okereke J. N. Anyado S. O. Dike Ndudim J N and Enekwu E. C (2015) Effects of anthropogenic activities on soil carbon storage and compactness in coastal plain soil of the tropical urban area. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 6(11): 1436 – 1448.
  20. Okereke J. N., Udebuani A. C., Ezeji E. U., Obasi K. O., Nnoli M. C. (2015). Possible Health Implications Associated with Cosmetics: A Review. Science Journal of Public HealthSpecial Issue: Who Is Afraid of the Microbes. 3(5-1), 58-63.
  21. Obasi K. O., Enemechukwu S. Udebuani A. C., Oparaigbo, M. I. and Ezea C. O. (2015), Heavy metals concentration in prawn (Macrobrachium Sp) harvested from Oron River, in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The International Journal of Science & Technoledge. 3(8): 280 – 284.
  22. Okereke J. N., Obasi K. O., Nwadike P. O., Ezeji E. U. and Udebuani A. C. (2015) Geo-helminths associated with geophagic pupils in selected primary schools in Oyi, Anambra State. Science Journal of Public Health. Special Issue: Who Is Afraid of the Microbes. 3(5-1): 45-50.
  23. Ezeji E. U., Ogueri D. O., Udebuani A. C. Okereke J. N. and Obasi K. O. (2015), Effect of Dichlorvos on the fertility of adult male albino rats. Nature and Science, 13(12): 1-5.
  24. Udebuani A. C., Abara P N. Obasi K O, and Okuh S U. (2015), Studies on the insecticidal properties of Chromoleana odorata (Asteraceae) against adult stage of Periplaneta americanaJournal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 46(1): 1-5
  25. Nwaogu L. A., Emejulu A. A., Udebuani A. C. and Arukwe U. (2015) Biochemical Assessment of Picralima nitida seeds on oxidative stress parameters of Albino rats. Annual Research & Review in Biology. (2): 1 -9.
  26. Onweremadu E. U. Uzor E.I., Egbuche C. T. Agim L. C. Njoku D. J. and Udebuani A. C. (2015) Properties of mine soils in a forested hilly terrain of Southern Nigeria. Agriculture, Forest and Fisheries. 4(1-3): 34 – 39.
  27. Onweremadu E. U. Udebuani A. C. Egbuche C. T. and Ndukwu B. N. (2015) Rapid risk reduction strategies using some horticultural plants in a changing atmosphere among urban and peri-urban centres of the Atlantic Coast in Nigeria. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 4(3-1): 5-10.
  28. Obasi K. O. Chinedu K. Udebuani A. C, Okereke J. N., Ezeji E. U. and Anyado S. N. (2015). Study on concentrations of selected heavy metals: cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury in soft tissue of periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscata Radula) in. Eagle Island river, Rivers, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology 4(10): 451-457.
  29. Obasi K. O. Chinedu K. Okereke J. N., Udebuani A. C, Ezeji E. U. and Anyado S. N. (2015). The concentration of cadmium lead arsenic and mercury in the soft tissue of periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscata Radula) in Eagle Island river, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology 4(10): 474 – 478.
  30. Abara P. N. Ibiam U. A. Ubi B. Udebuani A. C. Ugwu Okechukwu P. C. (2014). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of two detergents on Rattus norvegicus. World Engineering and Applied Science Journal 5(2): 52-58.
  31. Udebuani A. C. Onweremadu E. U. and Allison-Onyechere L U (2013) Distribution of soil organisms in spent engine oil-contaminated soils of Owerri agricultural zone Imo State. Journal of Biodiversity and Biological Sciences 3(1): 15 – 19
  32. Abara P. N., Udebuani, A. C., Thomas, B. P., Duru, M. C. and Allison L. N. (2013), Cytotoxicity of deltamethrin on the growth of Onions (Allium cepa). International Journal of Environmental Health and Human Development. 14; 26 – 30.
  33. Ezejiofor T. I. N., Ezejiofor A. N. Udebuani A. C. Ezeji E. U., Ayalogbu E. A. Azuwuike, C. O. Adjero, L. A.. Ihejirika, C. O. Ujowundu, C. O. Nwaogu. L. A and Ngwogu K. O. (2013) Environmental metals pollutants load of a densely polluted and heavily industrialize commercial city of Aba, Nigeria. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health services. 5(1) 1-11
  34. Udebuani, A C. Okoli, C.I. Nwigwe, H C and Ozoh P.T.E. (2012) The value of animal manure in the enhancement of bioremediation processes in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated agricultural soils. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(6): 1935 – 1952.
  35. Onweremadu, E.U. Udebuani A.C. and Abara, P.N. (2012). Soil Carbon Accumulation and Soil Microbial Biomass in Two Use Types as Influenced by Parent Material. Agricultural Journal, 7: 292-296.
  36. Chima I. U., Unamba-Opara I. C., Ugwu C., Udebuani A. C., Okoli C. G., Opara M. N., Uchegbu M. C. and Okoli I. C. 2012. Biosecurity and disinfection controls of poultry microbial pathogen infections in Nigeria. J. World’s Poult. Res. 2(1):05-17.
  37. Onweremadu E U., Osuaku S. K., Udebuani A. C. and Lekwa, M. (2011); Carbon sequestration in Soils of three land-use types in Owerri area, Southeastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(3) 20 – 24.
  38. Udebuani A. C., Okoli I C., Nwigwe H. C. and Ozoh P. T. E (2011) Effects of Spent engine oil pollution on Arable Soil of Nekede Mechanic Village Owerri Nigeria. International Journal of Natural and Applied Science.
  39. Udebuani A. C., Ugochukwu I. T. and Abara P. N. (2011) Glyphosate Exposure: Its toxicological effects on Giant African Snail Archachatina marginata. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. 14 (1): 436 – 442
  40. Udebuani A. C., Okoli G. C., Okoli I C Nwigwe H. C. and Ozoh P. T. E (2011) Assessment of the volume and disposal methods of spent engine oil generated in Nekede mechanic village, Owerri Nigeria. Report and Opinion 3(2): 31 – 36. ISSN: (1553 – 9873)
  41. Okpoho N. and Udebuani A. C. (2011), Land Use type in relation to microbial distribution in a degraded University Environment International Journal of Agricultural and Rural Development. 14(2) 677 – 680.
  42. Onweremadu, E. U., Osuaku, S. K., Udebuani, A. and Lekwa, M. (2011) Carbon sequestration in soils of three land-use types in Owerri areaSoutheastern Nigeria Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(3): 20 – 24
  43. Nwaogu L. A and Udebuani A. C. (2010) Effects of processing on the nutritional and toxicological component of Cleome rutidosperma African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 183 – 186.
  44. Abara P. N. and Udebuani A. C (2010) Effect of Oral administration of laundry detergent on selected internal organs of albino Wistar rats; International Journal of Environmental Health & Human Development, 11(2): 27 – 33.
  45. Iheanacho K. M. E. and Udebuani A. C (2009) Nutritional composition of some leafy Vegetable consumed in Imo State Nigerian Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 13(3): 35 – 38.
  46. Iheanacho K. M. E. Udebuani A. C and Ihegboro G. O. (2009) Phytochemistry and effect of aqueous leaf extract of Mistletoe (Tapinathus bangwensis) on serum Glucose and Cholesterol concentrations in Normoglycaemic Rat. Nigeria Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular 23 (2) 35 – 39.
  47. Dike J. N, Udebuani A. C and Ogbulie J. N. (2007) Bacteria of public health significance isolated from some surface water in Imo State. International Journal, Environmental Health and Development 8 (1): 24 – 34.
  48. Dike J. N. and Udebuani A. C. (2007) Studies on the bacteriological quality of surface and underground tank reservoirs in Imo State. International Journal, Environmental Health and Development 7 (1): 14 – 23.
  49. Udebuani A. C. and Ozoh P. T. E (2006) Aspects of the chemistry of soil and Elicina indica growing on a seven-year-old Oil spill. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food System. 1(2): 187-192.
  50. Obasi K. O., Udebuani A. C. and Okereke J. N. (2006) The study on the relationship between the chemical oxygen demand and the total aerobic fungi and bacteria in Aba river, Abia State. Journal of Research in Bioscience, 2(1): 22-25.
  51. Ifeanyi V. O., Obiekezie S. O., Udebuani A. C. and Abara P. N. (2006) Quality evaluation of sachet water sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, International Journal of Natural and Applied Science 2(4): 332-335


  1. 1. Udebuani A. C (2013), Application of biotechnology and molecular biology in agricultural production. In Foundation Biology for University students. Volume 11 Pp. 190 – 226.
  2. Onweremadu E. U. and Udebuani A. C. (2012), Climate Change and Food Security Concept, Adaptation and mitigation, An Epistemology of the indispensable. In: Weathering Global Warming through relevant knowledge (ed) Great A P Express Publisher Ltd Nsukka Nigeria Pp. 51 – 64.
  3. Onweremadu E. U. and Udebuani A. C. (2010) Optimum soil nutrient: A sine Qua non-for sustainable agriculture for food and nutrition security In Soil nutrient (ed.) Nova Science Publishers, New York USA.
  4. Udebuani A C and Abara P N (2018) Introduction to food microbiology In Principles of General Microbiology. Amadi E. S., Ugbogu O. C and Ogugbue C. J. (Eds), WebsMedia Communications Ltd, Nigeria. Pp 751 – 787.