Biotechnology Department

School of Biological Sciences (SOBS)

AN OVERVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

The advent of modern Biotechnology as a discipline in recent times has brought to light new prospects of increased productivity in virtually many fields, viz: agriculture, food science, environment, medicine and industry, This is of particular relevance to the developing countries where population continues to explode while food production and economic resources lag behind.

Biotechnology is really not a single discipline. Although a major focus of this branch of study revolves around using molecular biology to bring about genetic engineering applications, biotechnology is multidisciplinary. It pieces together information from different fields such as botany, zoology, microbiology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering. It even goes beyond science to involve economics, entrepreneurial study, philosophy and law.

Cutting-edge and innovative products and applications of biotechnology abound, not only products for direct human use but also applications in many areas of human endeavour. Many biotechnology companies in the USA are involved in a pharmaceutical production. Products ranging from recombinant insulin for the treatment of diabetes to several hundred drugs, vaccines and diagnostics are on sales with more than half of the new drugs being targeted at the treatment of cancer, AIDS, stroke and diabetes.

At present when a biotechnologist identifies a gene of interest, he inserts it into bacterial cells or mammalian cells grown by cell culture Here cells are grown in plates or flasks in specially defined liquid media. However, because only a limited number of cells can be grown in a small culture plate, the cells are transferred into large culture containers- bioreactors (fermenters). In bioreactors, the cells bearing the target DNA are mass-produced and used in various applications. It is said that in the near future genes may be routinely inserted into a man as gene therapy techniques are employed to cure various diseases. Organs for transplantation are being grown, which may not be rejected by the recipient body. Modern medical advances derived from the Human Genome Project will hopefully result in healthier lives and increased longevity.

Biotechnology has many sub-disciplines including Microbial Biotechnology, Agricultural Biotechnology, Animal Biotechnology, Medical, plant, microbial   Forensic, Bioremediation and Regulatory Biotechnology as well as Bioinformatics.

Although conventional biotechnology employs microorganisms to make beer and wine from historical times, modern biotechnology has tremendously improved the old technology with a quantum leap resulting in a hundred-fold quantity of products, simplifying manufacturing and improving sanitation. Better micro-organisms and enzymes for making food types have been developed. Bioleaching of oil and mineral to improve mining efficiency is done with microbes. Microbes are also used to clone and mass- produce important proteins employed in human medicine,

In Agricultural Biotechnology with sub-discipline as plant and Animal Biotechnology, our minds go to genetically engineered, pest-resistant plants which do not need to be treated with pesticides. Crops are produced with higher protein or vitamin content than naturally endowed. Drought resistance, tolerance to cold temperature and greater food yields are now engineered into crops. Genetically modified (GM) foods have come to stay in most countries despite opposition from sceptics who say that "GM food is against nature". However, some people worry about their potential health effects.

We all know about the famous Dolly - a sheep created" by cloning in 1997 at Roslin Institute, Scotland. The public received this with surprise, excitement and reservation. Many other animals have been cloned since Dolly. Animal cloning has generated fear and concern about the potential for cloning human beings. However, scientists are interested in cloning organs that can be transplanted into human beings without fear of tissue rejection:

Medical biotechnology touches all perspectives of human medicine from preventive to diagnostic" to treatment. Numerous applications aimed at improving human health are now available. New information from the Human Genome Project reveals defective genes and helps scientists know more about genetic diseases such as sickle-cell anaemia, cancer and types of infertility. Stem cell techniques are creating ripples of controversy. Stem cells are young cells which can potentially develop into almost any type of cell in the body. They can be made to grow into human tissues and organs which are employed in transplantations, to replace defective ones. This use is still shrouded in ethical and legal controversy.

Forensic biotechnology has become an important aspect of law enforcement. DNA fingerprinting detects the unique DNA pattern of an organism. It is realized by using traces of tissue such as hair, blood or body fluid left behind at a scene of the crime. Courts all over the world now admit DNA fingerprinting as evidence to convict criminals and exculpate the wrongly accused persons. It is also used in resolving paternity cases to identify a child's real father.

To clean up polluted environments, Bioremediation (Environmental Biotechnology) comes into play. Many processes in Bioremediation rely on microbial biotechnology applications in that genetically modified bacterium and white-rot fungi are utilized to degrade and eliminate pollutants. This was effectively utilized in 1989 for the Exxon Valdez oil in Alaska in which strains of Pseudomonas were stimulated to accelerate bioremediation process.

Pharmaceutical companies must evaluate their drugs on the basis of spelt-out guidelines. In the same manner biotechnology products undergo rigorous Quality Assurance and Quality Control measures designed to ensure maximum safety and efficacy. Regulatory Biotechnology is really important in the biotech business. It not only regulates the final quality of products and ensures the consistency of product standards, it is concerned with patents, legal issues and proper methods of clinical trials in human patients.

BIOINFORMATICS

Bioinformatics being the design, construction and use of software tools to generate store, annotate, access and analyze data and information relating to Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Computer technology is however applied to manage and analyze biological data and information and conveying them in databases. It, therefore, links the areas of Bioscience and Computer science. The world wide web(www) is used extensively as a gateway website for Bioinformatics. With Bioinformatics search tools, diseases can be diagnosed, mutations can be detected such as deletion, insertion and DNPs etc. Precise genes, species and strain of organisms can be obtained hence organisms can be classified, genes mapped and functions can be determined or predictions made.

CAREER OPPORTUNITY

Biotechnology offers numerous employment opportunities to its graduates as considered below.

Research and Development: Scientists in Research and Development (R&D) directly develop new ideas and conduct experiments to determine if a promising concept can actually be converted into a product. The R&D section of any biotechnology company is the life-blood, for, without new discoveries, companies cannot make new products. Research Scientists find employment in the industry, universities, various research institutes, hospitals and various agencies.

Laboratory Technologists collaborate with Research Scientists to run experiments, analyse results, interpret data and maintain laboratory equipment. They are therefore needed in the industry, universities, research institutes, hospitals and government agencies such as NAFDAC (National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control) and NDLEA (National Drug Law Enforcement Agency). Laboratory Scientists are also involved in quality control of various industries involved in canning and packaging.

Biotechnology graduates also work as Environmental Scientists in Government agencies and firms involved in cleaning up of polluted land, water and air and monitoring of the environment. They evaluate the environmental impact Assessment of firms wishing to establish industrial outfits.

In Forensic units of Criminal Investigation departments, it is Biotechnology scientists who carry out DNA fingerprinting to confirm the criminality or innocence of accused persons. They also use DNA fingerprinting to settle paternity cases by pinpointing a child's father. They, therefore, find employment with the police, justice and other investigation departments or agencies.

There are great opportunities for self-employment for Biotechnology graduates. They can set up their own laboratories and carry out tests and analyses for various departments including, but not limited to, pharmaceutical companies and hospitals, food and agro-industries, the police and courts, environmental departments, other agencies and for individuals.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS:

Candidates to be admitted into the B. Tech Biotechnology programme must possess the following qualifications;

1.    Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) Requirement:

  • An acceptable level of a pass in the UTME in the following subject combination: English Language, Biology, Chemistry and Physics.
  • Credit level pass in at least five subjects in SSCE (or WASCE/GCE Ordinary Level/NECO examination) in English Language, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and Physics.

2.   Direct Entry (DE) Requirement:

  • An acceptable level of pass in' at least two subjects in General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced Level or Higher School Certificate (HSC) in Biology (Botany or Zoology) and Chemistry or This is in addition to O'level pass in the relevant subjects listed above.
  • Holders of National Diploma (ND/OND) certificate with a minimum of Upper Credit in the above subject combination will be eligible for admission provided the candidates have passed at credit level in relevant subjects in at least 5 (five) GCE 0' Level! WASCE/ NECO/SSCE.

DURATION OF B.TECH DEGREE PROGRAMME

Normally the duration of  B.Tech. Biotechnology degree programme is five years for UTME (Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination) candidates admitted into 100 level, and four years for DE (Direct Entry) candidates admitted into 200 level.

PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) degree programme is for a duration of five years. The first two years (l00 and 200 levels) give students foundation in general biology, allied natural sciences and general studies. The last three years (300 -500 levels) expose students to different perspectives of Biotechnology. Throughout the five years of study, students undergo well-planned practical and field classes and excursion. In addition, students go for industrial training two times during the programme:

(a)      Long vacation at the end of 200 level;

(b)      Six-month Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in the Rain semester of 400 level.

In the final year, each student gives a seminar based on supervised library research and carries out a double- semester supervised research project on which a report is submitted and viva-voce conducted.

ORGANIZATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT

The Head of Department administers the Department through committees. In the Department, there are various committees such as Board of studies, Appraisals committee, Quality control & Examination malpractice committee, Sanitary committee, Examination/Results verification  Committee, Direct Teaching and Laboratory Costs Committee, Welfare Committee, Admissions Committee, Post-graduate Studies Committee, etc. Each member of the staff belongs to one or more of these committees, which takes a decision on different aspects of the Department. The Head of Department normally goes with the decisions of these committees to the Vice-Chancellor as Chairman of Senate or directly to the Senate, through the Dean of School of Biological Sciences. Similar committees exist at the school level and they work in tandem with the Departmental committees and accountable to the SOBS Board of Studies.

 

PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES

Philosophy

Over the years Nigerian Universities have produced a large pool of manpower, at various levels, in the life sciences including pure and applied Biologists, Ecologists and Microbiologists. However, the country still lacks relevant manpower in the area of Biotechnology needed for her rapid technological development. The degree programme in Biotechnology has therefore been planned to give the students proper knowledge of biotechnological concepts, methods and techniques. The training will also equip them to be able to interpret biological phenomena at the molecular level and to apply such knowledge in addressing various developmental challenges.

Objectives

The objectives of the programme are:

1.   To produce graduates for gainful employment in handling biotechnological issues in the industrial, medical/public health, environmental and agricultural sectors.

2.   To prepare and equip students for post-graduate research and development projects and professional studies in various areas of Biotechnology and its applications.

To produce graduates who can be creative enough to be self-employed in establishing' industrial, manufacturing and analytical concerns.

STUDENTS WELFARE                                                         

The Department appoints Class Advisers for the students at various levels. A class adviser registers the student on admission into level 1 and oversees the affairs of the students until the year of graduation. Therefore, students in the same year of study have the same Academic Adviser. Usually, the student writes to the Head of Department or other authorities through the academic adviser. In certain serious cases, the grievances may be processed to the Senate for determination through the school board of studies. Each class may choose to elect its own course representative (course-rep) who remains dire4ctly accountable to the class and may serve as a proxy between the department and students in the dissemination of information and classroom administration.

Some work aid schemes exist in the university to assist indigent students and these include:
a) University library
b) Centre for Industrial Studies (C.I.S.)
c) FUTO consults
d) Other special areas.

Awards are also available at the university, school and Department levels for students/graduates who attained academic and other distinctions.

B.TECH. (HONS) BIOTECHNOLOGY YEAR I (100 LEVEL)

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

COURSE NO      TITLE                       L.T.P        UNIT

MTH  101  Elementary Mathematics I       3,1,0           4

PHY   101    General Physics I                     2,1,1           4

CHM  101   General Chemistry I                 2,1,1           4

BIO   101    Biology for Agric & BioScience I                                  2,0,1           3

ENG  101              Workshop Practice I       0,0,1          1

ENG  103              Engineering Drawing I    0,0P,1        1

GST  101              Use of English I              1,1,0          2

GST  103              Philosophy and Logic     1,0,0          1

Elective                                     1,0,0           1

_______

Total                                                  21units

List of Electives

IGBO 101    Introduction to Igbo

Grammar, Composition and Comprehension                 1 0 0           1

FRN  101    Introduction to the French Language I                   1 0 0           1

RAIN SEMESTER

COURSE NO        TITLE                            L.T.P          UNITS

MTH  102    Elementary Mathematics II      3,1,0          4

PHY   102    General Physics II                     2,1,1          4

CHM  102   General Chemistry II                 2,1,1          4

BIO   102    Biology for Agric & BioScience II                                  1,0,1           2

ENG  104              Engineering Drawing II  0,0,1          1

GST  102              Use of English II             1,1,0          2

GST  108              Social Science II              1,1,0          2

GST  110              Science, Technology & Society                           1,0,0           1

Elective                           1 0 0           1

______

Total                                          21units

                   List of Electives

IGBO 102             Introduction to Igbo History, Culture and Lit.          1 0 0           1

FRN  102              Introduction to French Language II                  1 0 0           1

 

YEAR II (200 LEVEL)

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

COURSE NO        TITLE                            L.T.P           UNITS

MCB  201             General Microbiology I   2,0,1           3

BCH  201             General Biochemistry I   2,0,1            3

BTC  201              Introduction to Biotech-nology I                          2,1,0           3

STA  211              Introduction to Statistics and Probability              2,1,0           3

CSC 201               Computer Application    2,1,1           4

MTH 201              Mathematical Methods I 2,1,0           3

GST 201               Nigerian and African Cultural Development              1,0,0           1

______

Total                                                  20units

RAIN SEMESTER

COURSE NO        TITLE                            L.T.P           UNITS

MCB  202             General Microbiology II  2,0,1           3

BCH  202             General Biochemistry II  2,0,1           3

BTC 204               Genetics      I                  1,1,0           2

CHM 202              Inorganic Chemistry      2,0,1           3

CHM 204              Organic Chemistry         2,0,1           3

BTC  202              Methods in recombinant  DNA Technology I              2,0,1           3

MTH 202     Mathematical Methods II         2,1,0           3

______

Total                                                  20units

SIWES                  Student Industrial Work Experiences Scheme                0,0,2           2

 

B.TECH. (HONS) BIOTECHNOLOGY

YEAR 111 ( 300 LEVEL)

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

RAIN SEMESTER

COURSE NO    TITLE                                   L. T. P     UNITS

BTC 302             Microbial Growth and Growth Kinetics                   2,0,1                  3

BTC 304             Molecular Genetics                2,0,1               3

BTC 306             Methods in Recombinant DNA Technology II              2,0,1                  3

MCB 302            Pharmaceutical Microbiology                                 1,0,1          2

BCH 304             Biophysics                          2,1,0                  3

ENS 302              Entrepreneurial Studies II      1,0,1              2

Elective                                               2/3__

Total                                                      18/19

Electives  

BCH 302             Metabolic Pathway I            2,1,0                 3

EVT  306             Environmental Impact         2,0,0                 2

Assessment I

BTC  308             General Ecology &  Diversity                           2,1,0          3

BTC 312              Embryology                           2,1,0               3

YEAR IV

400 level courses: core courses

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

General Biotechnology Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                        L. T. P       UNITS

BTC 401     Pharmacology of Natural Products                                        2,0,1               3

BTC 403     Cell and Tissue Culture      2,0,1               3

BTC 405     Agricultural Biotechnology 1,0,1                2

BTC 409     Environmental Biotechnology1,0,1             2

BTC 411     Technical Writing and Presentation                         0,0,1              1

BTC 413     Microbial Physiology and Metabolism                           2,0,1              3

Elective                                                                 3___

Total                                                                    17

Elective course

BTC 407     Comparative Virology          2,1,0                3

BTC 415     Analytical methods and Quality control in microbiology                       2,0,1                3

400 level courses: core courses

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

Animal Biotechnology Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                            L. T. P                  UNITS

BTC 401     Pharmacology of Natural Products                                  2, 0,1                    3

BTC 403     Cell and Tissue Culture           2,0,1                     3

BTC 405     Agricultural Biotechnology      1,0,1                     2

BTC 407     Comparative Virology               1,0,1                      2

BTC 415     Analytical methods and           2,0,1                     3

Quality control in microbiology

BTC 411     Technical Writing and Presentation  0,0,1           1

Elective                                                                           2____

Total                                                                               17

Elective Courses                                                          

BTC 409     Environmental Biotechnology  1,0,1           2

BTC 413     Microbial Physiology and Metabolism                               2,0,1           3

Microbial Biotechnology option

BTC 401     Pharmacology of Natural Products    2, 0,1          3

BTC 405     Agricultural Biotechnology                1,0,1           2

BTC 409     Environmental Biotechnology            1,0,1           2

BTC 411     Technical Writing and Presentation  0,0,1           1

BTC 413     Microbial Physiology and  Metabolism                                        2,0,1           3

BTC 415     Analytical methods and                     2,0,1           3

Quality control in microbiology

Elective                                                                          3____

Total                                                                              17

Elective Course

BTC 403     Cell and Tissue Culture           2,0,1           3

BTC 407     Comparative Virology               2,0,1           3

Plant Biotechnology Option

BTC 401     Pharmacology of Natural Products    2, 0,1          3

BTC 403     Cell and Tissue Culture                     2,0,1           3

BTC 405     Agricultural Biotechnology                1,0,1           2

BTC 409     Environmental Biotechnology            1,0,1           2

BTC 407     Comparative Virology                         2,0,1           3

BTC 411     Technical Writing and Presentation  0,0,1           1

Elective                                                                          3___

Total                                                                              17

Elective Course

BTC 413     Microbial Physiology and Metabolism         2,0,1           3

BTC 415     Analytical methods and                               2,0,1                    3

Quality control in Microbiology

Bio-informatics Option

BTC 405     Agricultural Biotechnology                1,0,1           2

BTC 409     Environmental Biotechnology            1,0,1           2

BTC 411     Technical Writing and Presentation  0,0,1           1

BTC 415     Analytical microbiology and Quality 2,0,1           3

BTC 417     Computer and Application Techniques  II                                     2,0,1           3

BTC 419     Genetics II                                         2, 01           3

Elective                                                                  3___

Total                                                                              17

Elective Course

BTC 403     Cell and Tissue Culture                     2,0,1           3

BTC 401     Pharmacology of Natural Products    2,0,1           3

BTC 413     Microbial Physiology and Metabolism                                        2,0,1           3

 

YEAR V

500 LEVEL COURSES: CORE COURSES

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

General Biotechnology Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                        L. T. P              UNITS

BTC 501 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 503 Industrial Biotechnology              2,0,1           3

BTC 505 Seminar in Biotechnology            0,1,0           1

BTC 507 Research Project Biotechnology I  0,0,2           2

BTC 509 Biotechnology Robotics and Analytical Methods in Biotechnology2,0,1         3

BTC 511 Bioresource Management             2,1,0          3

Elective                                                              3___

            Total                                                                  18

Elective Courses

BTC 513 Plant Gene Transfer                                2,0,1           3

MCB 503    Immunology and Immunochemistry 2,0,1           3

 

RAIN SEMESTER

BTC 502 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 504 Genetic Engineering                     2,0,1           3

BTC 506 Nucleotide Sequence Analysis       2,0,1           3

BTC 508 Research Project Biotechnology    0,0,4           4

BTC 510 Bioethics, Biosafety and intellectual property Right                                 2,1,0           3

Elective                                                               3___

  Total                                                                  19                                           

Elective Course:

BTC 512 Biology of Cancer                     2,1,0                3

BTC 518 Food Biotechnology                 2,0,1                3

 

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

Animal Biotechnology Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                             L. T. P                  UNITS

BTC 501 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1                     3

BTC 505 Seminar in Biotechnology            0,1,0                     1

BTC 507 Research Project Biotechnology I  0,0,2                     2

BTC 511 Bioresource Management             2,1,0                     3

MCB 503    Immunology and Immunochemistry 2,0,1           3

BTC 509 Biotechnology Robotics and Analytical Methods in Biotechnology       2,0,1           3

Elective                                                                        3

            Total                                                                            18

Elective Courses

BTC 503 Industrial Biotechnology                        2,0,1           3

BTC 515 Forensic Biotechnology                          2,0,1           3

 

RAIN SEMESTER

BTC 502 Process Biotechnology I                          2,0,1           3

BTC 504 Genetic Engineering                              2,0,1            3

BTC 506 Nucleotide Sequence Analysis                2,0,1           3

BTC 508 Research Project Biotechnology              0,0,4           4

BTC 510 Bioethics, Biosafety and Intellectual Property Right                                          2,0,1           3

Elective                                                                        3

            Total                                                                         19

Electives Courses

BTC 518     Food Biotechnology                 2,0,1           3

BTC 512     Biology of Cancer                     2,1,0           3

 

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

Plant Biotechnology Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                        L. T. P              UNITS

BTC 501 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 505 Seminar in Biotechnology            0,1,0           1

BTC 507 Research Project Biotechnology I  0,0,2           2

BTC 511 Bioresource Management             2,1,0           3

BTC 513 Plant gene Transfer                       2,0,1           3

BTC 517 Plant Physiology                          2,0,1           3

Elective                                                               3

            Total                                                                  18

Elective courses

BTC 503 Industrial Biotechnology              2,0,1           3

BTC 509 Biotechnology Robotics and Analytical Methods in Biotechnology2,0,1         3

 

RAIN SEMESTER

BTC 502 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 504 Genetic Engineering                     2,0,1           3

BTC 506 Nucleotide Sequence Analysis       2,0,1           3

BTC 508 Research Project Biotechnology    0,0,4           4

BTC 510 Bioethics, Biosafety and intellectual Property Right                                 2,0,1           3

Elective                                                               3

            Total                                                                  19

Electives Courses

BTC 518 Food Biotechnology                      2,0,1           3

BTC 514 Seed Plants                                   2,1,0           3

 

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

Microbial Biotechnology Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                           L. T. P           UNITS

BTC 501 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 503 Industrial Biotechnology              2,0,1           3

BTC 505 Seminar in Biotechnology            0,1,0           1

BTC 507 Research Project Biotechnology I  0,0,2           2

BTC 509 Biotechnology Robotics and Analytical Methods in Biotechnology2,0,1         3

BTC 511 Bioresource Management             2,1,0           3

Elective                                                               3

  Total                                                                 18

Elective Courses

MCB 503 Immunology and Immunochemistry     2,0,1      3

BTC 515 Forensic Biotechnology                2,0,1           3

 

RAIN SEMESTER

BTC 502 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 504 Genetic Engineering                     2,0,1           3

BTC 506 Nucleotide Sequence Analysis       2,0,1           3

BTC 508 Research Project Biotechnology    0,0,4           4

BTC 520 Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology                                           2,0,1           3

Elective                                                               3

            Total                                                                  19

Electives Courses

BTC 510 Bioethics, Biosafety and intellectual Property right                             2,0,1                3

BTC 518 Food Biotechnology                 2,1,0                3

 

HARMATTAN SEMESTER

Bioinformatics Option

COURSE NO:       TITLE                           L. T. P           UNITS

BTC 501 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 505 Seminar in Biotechnology            0,1,0           1

BTC 507 Research Project Biotechnology I  1,0,1           2

BTC 509 Biotechnology Robotics and  Analytical Methods in Biotechnology                               2,0,1           3

BTC 519/CSC 305  Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis                 2,1,0           3

BTC 521/CSC 403 Data management system and Design                        2,1,0           3

Elective                                                               3

  Total                                                                 18

Elective Courses

BTC 511     Bioresource Management        2,0,1           3

BTC 515     forensic Biotechnology             2,0,1           3

 

RAIN SEMESTER

BTC 502 Process Biotechnology I                2,0,1           3

BTC 504 Genetic Engineering                     2,0,1           3

BTC 506 Nucleotide Sequence Analysis       2,0,1           3

BTC 508 Research Project Biotechnology    0,0,4           4

BTC 516 Probability and Random Variables 2,1,0         3

Elective                                                               3

Total                                                                  19

Electives Courses

BTC 518 Food Biotechnology                     2,0,1           3

BTC 520 Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology                                                                 2,1,0

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