Sarah I. Umeh
Livestock production is perceived by the public to be potential food for the world’s needy people and also livestock are essential to developing sustainable agricultural systems in Third world countries. Sustainable animal production means that we are able to produce food animal and animal products without lasting damage to the environment which means essential elements like water, air and soil are left without dead loads and those by-products of animal production create no animal and human health risks through environmental protection and animal waste management. Animal agriculture is central to the economic vitality of many of our rural communities, but offsetting these social benefits of animal agriculture are the economic costs and potential public and environmental health risks associated with the storage and disposal of animal faeces (excrement and urine). In the rearing of domestic livestock on range or pasture, animal faeces may not be concentrated in one area as with confined livestock. These animals can also contaminate water by defecating in unprotected surface water, through surface runoff and as a result of seepage of water through soil that contains an excessive amount of animal faeces. The potential for this environmental pollution is present and growing because of the concentration of production into fewer large-scale units, not the increase in total numbers of animals. Large-scale production facilities have the potential to cause serious environmental contamination as a result of the amount of faeces produced at one site. Good management of animal wastes and a commitment to cost-effective environmental stewardship can go a long way towards reducing the potential public and environmental health risks associated with the storage and disposal of animal wastes. The trend in animal production has shown a dramatic shift in the last 50 – 60 years from small family farms and grazing operations toward large commercial confinement operations. The concentration of animals into confinement facilities poses many environmental challenges, among which pathogenic microorganisms of faecal orgin are of concern. Animal agriculture results in the production of copious amounts of manure much of which is ultimately used as fertilizer for crops or spread onto land. On a per weight basis, livestock animals produce between 13 and 25 times more manure than humans. Comparing the most recent U.S. census data and USDA livestock reports, it can be estimated that animals produce somewhere between 3 and 20 times more weight). Even moderate livestock operations can produce as much manure as a small sized city. There are a range of health hazards relating to livestock droppings owing to the presence of a wide range of bacteria and other organisms propagating in the guts and related tissues as well as glands of these farms animals. In developing countries like Nigeria, household subsistence farming is common which means that a large proportion of the population has close contact with food animals. These animals are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant organisms and therefore if resistant organisms are common in animals the chance that they will be transmitted to humans is more likely). In the report by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) 2007, it was stated that the world’s leading medical, agricultural and veterinary authorities reached a consensus that antimicrobial drug overuse in animal agriculture is contributing to human public health problems. Microbial studies showed that antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria from farm animals not only infect humans but may transfer that resistance to other bacteria that colonize the human gut. The dozing of livestock animals with copious amounts of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and prophylaxis may promote antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, increasing the severity of disease and limiting treatment options for sickened individuals. Livestock management, manure collection and storage, land application of manure, farm environmental management personal hygiene in the farms and recommendations on antimicrobial use. To enhance the hygienic level of livestock production in Nigeria or any other country the farmers and relevant stakeholders must be informed and sensitized on Good Management Practices to reduce farm pathogen levels thereby reducing the potential hazards and risks involved in transferring zoonotic pathogens of public health concern to humans.
Academic and Professional Qualifications
- ♦ Ph.D., 2010, University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria .
- ♦ M.Sc., 1985, Environmental Health, East Tennessee State University Johnson City, Tenn. U.S.A.
- ♦ B.Sc., 1984, Microbiology, East Tennessee State University Johnson City, Tenn. U.S.A.
Membership of Professional bodies
- ♦ Member, Nigerian Society for Microbiology.
- ♦ Member, American Society for Microbiology.
- ♦ Member, Nigerian Society for Safety Professionals.
- Antibiotic- resistant Escherichia coli in a government piggery Farm in Owerri, Nigeria. C.O. Akujobi, J.N. Ogbulie, S.I. Umeh, N.U. Abanno. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2(3): 363 – 367, 2008. Evaluation of Source Reduction Methods for Malaria Vector Control in selected States of the United State with Recommendations for Nigeria. S.I. Umeh. (2008). Journal for Advances in Science and Technology. Vol. 2(1) 1 – 62.
- Occurrence and Antimicrobial Profile of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh feaces of livestock Animals. S.I.Umeh, G.S.C Okpokwasili. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, (2009), Vol 23(1); 1866 – 1871.
- Cold Enrichment Method for the Isolation of Yersinia entrocolitica from Pig, Cattle and Chicken Droppings. Umeh, S.I., Okpokwasili, G.S.C. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 22(1); 1625 – 1629, (2008).
- Frequency and Distribution of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in Livestock Farms in Owerri Metropolis. Umeh, S.I., Okpokwasili, G.S.C. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 22(1); 1667 – 1672 (2008).
- Seasonal Prevalence of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 in Ruminants and Non – ruminants and the Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of the Organisms from Different Sources. S.I. Umeh, G.S.C. Okpokwasili. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, (2009) Vol. 23(1); 1849 – 1855.
- Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant women at the outpatient Clinic of some governmental Hospitals in Imo State, Nigeria. C.O. Akujobi, J.N. Ogbulie, S.I. Umeh, N.U. Abanno, I.N. Nwachukwu. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 3(3); 617 – 622, (2009).
- Bronchopulmonary Tuberculosis - Laboratory Diagnosis and Dots Strategy outcome in a Rural Community: A Retrospective Study by; Enwuru Chika Paulinus, Emeh Madubuike Samuel, Dr. Izuehie Ifeanyi Samson, Enwuru Christian Azubuike, Umeh Sarah I. Agbasi Uchenna Marcel. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. September 2009 ISBN 1595-689X VOL 10(3) Laboratory Diagnosis Of Malaria in Children Under Five Years in A Rural Community: Microscopy versus Malaria pf test ENWURU1, C.P., UMEH2, S.I., AGBASI,3 U.M., and EGBUOBI,4 R.C. 1. St Johns Lab Limited, Owerri, 2. Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, 3. Department of Science Lab Technology, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, 4. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.